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# EK Physics 8

### Light and Optics

electromagnetic wave travelling oscillation of an electric and a magnetic field which are perpendicular to each other and the direction of propagation is perpendicular to both fields; generated by acceleration of electric charge
speed of electromagnetic wave c = E/B
visible light wavelength range from 390 to 700 nm (shorter wavelength is violet and longer wavelength is red)
electromagnetic spectrum (large to small wavelength) long waves > radio waves > infrared > visible light > ultraviolet > x-rays > gamma rays
index of refraction n = c/v constant specific to a medium that helps describe the speed of light in that medium, always greater than 1, the larger the n - the slower light moves in that medium
n for water (refractive index) 1.3
n for glass (refractive index) 1.5
light made up of photons that each represent an EM wave, has a dual nature bc it can act as a wave and a particle, approximated as a ray moving in a straight line
wave theory applied to light propagation properties of light - reflection or refraction at the interference of 2 media
particle theory applied to light energy transformation properties
angle of incidence angle at which light ray strikes the interface, is equal to the angle of reflection (bc collision of photons against the interface is completely elastic)
angle of refraction angle at which the light refracts at the interface, given by Snell's law
Snell's law n1*sin(theta1) = n2*sin(theta2) where 1 and 2 specify their specific media **angle of incidence/refraction not specified bc it makes no difference if light is moving from 1 to 2 or 2 to 1
easier way to think about the path of light in different mediums light wants to travel btw any two points in the shortest possible path for light in terms of TIME - whichever medium that light is faster, it will want to "spend more time there" so the light will bend in the same direction in the interface
when light crosses into a new medium, the ____ remains the same, and the ____ changes frequency same, wavelength changes
eqn for the energy of single photon E = hf (h is Planck's constant, f is frequency)
total internal reflection if the angle of incidence is large enough, the entire amount of photons will be reflected at the angle of reflection and NONE will refract, occurs at the critical angle
critical angle = sin-1(n2/n1) (inverse sin of the ratio of n2 to n1) derived from Snell's law
chromatic dispersion where white light (which is made up of all frequencies in the visible spectrum) is split by a prism
diffraction when a wave moves through a small opening and bends around the corner of the opening, only significant if the size of the opening is on the order of the wavelength or smaller (smaller the hole, the greater the spreading)
constructive interference with diffracted waves result in.. bright bands
destructive interference with diffracted waves result in dark bands
concave mirror makes what kind of image? positive, real, inverted EXCEPT when object is within focal distance, when they will make negative, virtual upright images
convex mirror makes what kind of image? negative, virtual, upright
converging lens makes what kind of image? positive, real, inverted EXCEPT when object is within focal distance, when they will make negative, virtual upright images
diverging lens makes what kind of image negative, virtual, upright
objects are always positive when.. they are in front of a lens or mirror
objects are always negative when.. they are behind a lens or mirror
which side of a lens/mirror is positive? wherever the eye is - focal point and images here are real and inverted
which side of lens/mirror is negative? the opposite side of the eye - focal point and images are virtual and upright
Power of lens P = 1/f = 1/dimage + 1/dobject
magnification of lens M = -dimage/dobject = himage/hobject
focal point of mirror fmirror = 1/2*r
lateral magnification of two lens system M = m1*m2
effective power of two lens system Peff = P1 + P2
focal point the single point where light from horizontal rays is reflected by concave mirrors (or refracted by converging lenses) is focused and reflected outward from convex mirrors and diverging lens
focal length the distance that separates the mirror or lens from the focal point
which wavelengths are diffracted the most? the longer the wavelength, the more it is diffracted
interference when the path length traveled by light rays differs and creates high and low intensity bands due to constructive and destructive interference.
(chromatic dispersion) shorter wavelengths will bend more or less? shorter wavelengths bend more
why does chromatic dispersion occur? index of refraction for shorter wavelengths is greater than longer wavelengths in a given medium
(chromatic disperision) longer wavelengths will have greater or smaller angles of refraction when going from medium of lower n to higher n? greater
focal point of plane mirror infinite
focal point of concave mirror is positive or negative? positive
Created by: miniangel918