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Replication-Thatcher

WVSOM: Biochem test 2, Thatcher Replication

QuestionAnswer
Replication occurs where in Prokaryotes? eukaryotes? pro: cytoplasm, euk: nucleus
this polymerase synthesizes the leading strand, is able to proofread, uses an RNA primer DNA polymerase delta
this polymerase synthesizes the lagging strand, cannot proofread, uses an RNA primer DNA polymerase alpha
this polymerase fills in the of DNA for repair. It does not proofread or use an RNA primer DNA Pol. beta
this polymerase is found in the mitochondrai and is used to synthesize both leading and laging strand. it contains a proofreading fxn, but does not use an rna primer DNA pol gamma
the metalic cofactor necessary for activation of DNA polymerase? Mg++
DNA synthesis always proceeds in which direction? 5' to 3'
Proofreading (exonuclease activity) occurs in which direction? 3' to 5'
which pols. are able to perform exonuclease activity? dna pols delta and gamma are able to proofread their dna scripts.
which model of dna synthesis is followed? semiconservative: one strand of daughter chrome is newly synthesized, the other template is inherited intact from the parental chrome
decribe the difference between the leading and lagging strands... the leading strand is continuously synthesized in the 5'-3' direction by dna pol. delta while the lagging strand is synthesized 5'-3' in short fragments by dna pol. alpha
what is the name of the fragments of the lagging strand? okazaki fragments
what are "ori" and how many of them are present on each chrome? "ori" are origins of replication, and there are many of them for every chromosome. this speeds the process of replication up dramatically.
prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic ori pro: one; euk: many... this is why it only takes a little longer for the latter to replicate a genome that is dramtically larger
what it a replicon? a region of euk genome that is replicated as a unit from one central ori (avg. is 200 kb)
this enzyme binds an ori and serves to open the double helix so the dna pol. can begin replication? helicase
this cluster of factors stabilizes the single stranded DNA and prevents it from "winding back up" SSBs (single stranded binding protein)
a cluster of factors assembled around helicase that serves to replicate DNA. DNA replication apparatus (this includes DNA pols. alpha, delta, the "beta clamp", and primase... it does not include SSBs)
this ringl like protein wraps around the dna to stabilize the association of the replication apparatus. Beta clamp. (this is required for dna pol. delta which will "fall off" w/out it)
this enzyme binds the unwound lagging strand template and transcribes short stretches (<15 bp) of RNA primer that provides the necessary 3'OH for DNA pol. alpha. primase
this enzyme removes the rna primer laid down by primase, leaving chunks of missing bps RNA-ase
this polymerase fills in the chunks/ gaps of missing bps that were removed by RNA-ase DNA polymerase beta (these chunks are roughly 20 bp long)
this enzyme seals the nicks btwn the 3' OH and 5' phosphate DNA ligase (this happens not only after the replacement of DNA for RNA in the lagging strand, but also after DNA excisional repair)
this enzyme is reponsible for fixing the supercoiling caused by the unwinding of DNA (helicase) during replication topoisomerase
this enzyme fxns to synthesize the telomere, it contains an rna reverse transcriptase. its activity decreases with age, and increased activity of this enzyme is associated with cancer telomerase
Created by: cgreco on 2010-11-08



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