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mcat biology

Biology/ embryo developement

QuestionAnswer
what is the early embryonic development characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions? CLEAVAGE
Because during cleavage the divisions lead to an increase in cel number, without a growuth in cell protoplasm the cells are now SMALLER with an increasing ratio of of nuclear to cytoplasmic material
Does cleavage increase the surface to volume rateio YES
This is the specialization of cells that occurs during developement. DIFFERENTIATION
a morula is IS A SOLID BALL OF EMBRYONIC CELLS
Blastulation begins when the morula develops a fluid filled cavity called a blastocoel
a Hollow sphere of cells is a BLASTULA
This is the mammalian blastula BLASTOCYST
There are _______ parts to a mammalian blastocyst TWO
a The inner cell mass of the blastocyst protrudes into the blastocoel
the trophoblast ______________ the blastocoel SURROUNDS
This gives rise to the chorion TROPHOBLAST
when the blastula implants itself outside of the uterus this is called. AN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
the embryo implants itself in the uterine wall DURING BLASTULATION APROX. 5-8 DAYS AFTER FERTILIZATION.
PROGESTERONE Prepares the uterus for implantation.
This follows blastulation GASTRULATION
SINGLE CELL LAYER OF THE BLASTULA DEVELPES INTO A THREE LAYERED STRUCTURED CALLED A GASTRULA
ECTODERM INCLUDES: INTEGUMENT; epidermis, hair, nails, epithelium of the nose, mouth and anal canal, the lens of the eye, and nervous system.
ENDODERM INCLUDES: EPITHELIAL LININGS; digestive and respiratory tracts, lungs parts of the liver pancreas thyroid, and bladder
MESODERM INCLUDES: MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, CIRCULATORY, AND EXCRETORY SYSTEM, GONADS, CONNECTIVE TISSUE THROUGHOUT THE BODY, AND PORTIONS OF DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY ORGANS.
The influence of a specific group of cells on the differentiation of another group of cells INDUCTION
INDUCERS chemical substances passed from the organizer to adjacent cells that mediates induction
This takes place after gastrulation NEURULTION
NEURULATION Is the process that takes place at the end of gastrualtion when the germ layers begin to develop into a nervous system
The notocord is a rod of mesodermal cells
neural tube consist of ectoderm
This gives rise to the brain and spinal cord of the nervous system neural tube
has an inductive effect on the overlying ectoderm causing it to bend inward and from a groove along the dorsal surface of the embryo THE NOTOCORD
neural folds are formed by the dorsal ectoderm folding on either side of the groove, they growupward and fuse to form the neural tube.
at the tip of each neural fold are the neural crest cells
The neural crest cells give rise to the components of the peripheral nervous system including sensory ganglia, autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and schwann cells.
Placenta and umbillical cord are outgrowht so the four extra-embryonic membranes: amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac
this is the thin tough memebraine surrounding the amnionic fluid amnion
Chorion is a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion and is the beginning formation of the placenta
this becomes the spongy tissue of the placenta Chorionic Villi
The allantiois develops as an outpocketing of the gut. The blood vessels enlarge and become the Umbilical vessels
Umbilical vessels connect the fetus to the developing placenta
The yolk sac, and along withthe umbilical vessels (allantois) become enveloped by the amnion forming the umbilical cord.
umbillical vessels that develope into the allantois, along with a jelly like matrix make up the mature umbilical cord
This is a place of nutruiton respiration and waste disposal for the fetus. Along with immunological protection by preventing the diffusion of foreign matter PLACENTA
This carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus UMBILICAL VEIN
Blood bypasses the fetal liver via the DUCTUS VENOSUS
the fetal umbilical artery and the adult pulmonary arteries are the only arteries that CARRY DEOXGENATED BLOOD
THE FORAMEN OVALE the shunt that allows the fetal blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation and enters the left atrium directly from the right atrium, then pumped into the pulmonary artery
This shunt directs even more blood away from pulmonary circulation by pumping blood directly from the pulmonary artery to the aorta DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
Remember gas exchange does not take place at the fetal lungs but at the PLACENTA
Deoxygenated fetal blood is returned to the placenta via the UMBILLICAL ARTERIES
BLUE BABY SYNDROME when there is a patent ductus arteriosus, and the pulmonary pressure rises over time and esxceeds the systemic pressure, the flow will reverse and go in a right to left direction from the pulmonary artery, through the PDA, to the aorta. Creating a right t
proper developmental sequence morula, blastula,implantation,gastrula,appearance of mesoderm, neurulation, appearance of umbilical cord, elongation of toes and fingers, birth, closing of the ductus venosus
this can be found in the maternal blood HCG, and co2 produced by fetal cells
determinate cleavage results in cells whose diferention pathways are clearly defined These cells are INCAPABLE of individually developing into complete organisms.
the appearance of the three germ layers occurs during GASTRULATION.
how does fetal circulation differ from adult circulation fetal lungs o2 is obtained from maternal blood, which is passed via the placenta to the fetus. fetal pulmonary veins carry deoxygenated blood to the hearta nd the fetal pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs. directed by a system of shun
Created by: shannwms on 2010-10-29



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