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Speech Development

Speech Development Final Study Guide

Four types of narratives recount, eventcast, account, story
recount past experiences, events in which the child participated or read about (caregiver prompts)
eventcast explanation or anticipated event (I'll be the mommy, you be the daddy)
account spontaneous narratives in which children share their experiences (guess what?)
story fictionalized, content variation, character must overcome some challenge
story grammar setting + episode (internal response, internal plan, attempt, consequence, reaction)
setting characters introduced, habitual actions described and placed into context
episode initiating event or problem
internal response character's response to the episode
internal plan the plan set up by character to resolve the episode
attempt the plan put into action
consequence the result of the attempt (success or failure)
reaction character response to outcome
what happens to topic during the elementary school years as the child grows they initiate fewer topics, but are able to maintain those topics longer
why do older children use indirect requests better 1)more syntactic ability 2)more awareness of others and social roles
what happens with indirect requests during elementary school years by age eight a child usually has a good grasp of indirect requests, but this skill increases into adulthood
does culture affect politeness and indirect request usage YES
when is adult mastery of indirect request usage achieved adolescence
comprehension of indirect requests at age 6 trouble
comprehension of indirect requests at age 8 understanding, but still needs work
comprehension of indirect requests at age 11 highly competent, not many mistakes made
ways to respond to stacked requests for clarification repetition, revision, addition, cue, inappropriate
repetition saying the exact same phrase a second time
revision stating the phrase in a different way
addition adding information to clarify
cue provides definition or background
inappropriate not responding
development sequence for responding to stacked requests for clarification 5 yrs old- low 7 yrs old- medium 9 yrs old- high
how words are learned by elementary school children direct instruction, contextual, abstraction and morphological analysis
direct instruction definitions or explanations (teachers, parents, dictionary)
contextual abstraction using cues from context to assess meaning -syntactic (participial phrases, relative clauses, conjunction "or" and linked synonyms) or semantic (restatement, examples, similes, metaphors, cause/effect)
participial phrases syntactic abstraction (drenched by the heavy rain he was soaking wet)
relative clauses syntactic abstraction (the dietitian, who planned the meals)
conjunction "or" syntactic abstraction (the summit, OR the top of the mountain)
linked synonyms syntactic abstraction (sad, despondent)
restatement semantic abstraction (attribute, you have to be tall to succeed as an athlete)
example semantic abstraction (such as the tyrannosaurus...)
similes semantic abstraction (as and like)
metaphors semantic abstraction (the implication of as and like)
cause and effect semantic abstraction (the pain was alleviated by the medication)
morphological analysis using the components of a word to figure out its meaning
words learned in elementary school that support literacy polysemous terms, adverbs of likelihood, abstract nouns, factive verbs, non-factive verbs
polysemous terms words that have more than one meaning (sharp sweater)
adverbs of likelihood probably, definitely, considerably, severe...
abstract nouns words that refer to intangible concepts, mental states, or emotions (courage, freedom)
factive verbs truth of the complement clause that follows a factive verb assumed as a certainty (see, know, notice..)
non-factive verbs truthfulness of the complement clause is uncertain (think, believe,
metalinguistic awareness skills include recognizing phoneme, syllable, and word boundaries, recognizing that a sentence is grammatical, recognizing that two sentences mean the same thing, appreciating figurative language, recognizing ambiguity
metalinguistic awareness (competence) the ability to understand language and its components
why do we bother with metalinguistic awareness critical to reading, many of our assessments and tools require this ability, those with language impairment tend to also have poor metalinguistic awareness
two approaches to studying metalinguistic awareness cognitive and social constructivist
cognitive approach to studying metalinguistic awareness studying the underlying cognitive abilities that make metalinguistic awareness possible
social constructivist approach to studying metalinguistic awareness studying the social interactions that make metalinguistic awareness possible
developmental stage one of metalinguistic awareness responding to requests for clarification, adjusting speech to a specific listener, judgments based on meaning and word play(ages 1-6)
developmental stage two of metalinguistic awareness grammar judgements, phonological ambiguity, interpretation (ages 7-11)
developmental stage three of metalinguistic awareness appreciation of figurative language: idioms, metaphors, similes, hyperbole and adages (ages 10-12)
idioms expressions that have both a literal and a figurative meaning "hit the ceiling" "step out of line"
acquisition of idioms hard for young children, but increases into adulthood
transparent idioms the figurative meaning is an extension of the literal meaning. ie:“Skating on thin ice”
opaque idioms little connection between the literal and figurative meaning
metaphors a topic is likened to another term ("vehicle") on the basis that they share common ground
predictive metaphor there is one topic and one vehicle
proportional metaphor two topics and two vehicles that express an analogy at an underlying level
simile a predictive metaphor that is strengthened by the word "like"
acquisition of metaphors/similes appears in preschool, but mastery does not take place til adulthood
why are we interested in reading reading is a language activity
learning to read bottom up learning letters, combining them into words, words into sentences...
learning to read top down learning with a heavy emphasis on meaning and context
emergency literacy period literacy artifacts/events and types of knowledge gained from those experiences
what is learned in the literacy emergence period learn about print, phonology, the importance of reading
stage one of literary awareness focus on decoding (kindergarten to 2nd grade)
stage two of literary awareness attention directed to understanding meaning (third grade)
stage three of literary awareness begins systematic learning and application of grapheme-morpheme rules (fourth grade)
stage four of literary awareness attention directed to more sophisticated comprehension skills like inference and view points (high school)
stage five of literary awareness conceptual integration, critical judgment, and new thinking (college)
language at home vs. language at school home is a more relaxed environment, emphasis is on communication, meaning is in context, school is more formal, grammar is more important, the meaning is in the words
the jump to literacy is hard because... it's a jump from concrete to abstract
Created by: deezer