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Bontrager Upper Limb

Bontrager Upper Limbs

QuestionAnswer
Phalanges (fingers and Thumb) 14
Metacarpals (palm) 5
Carpals (wrist) 8
Two portions of the thumb (first digit) are the: Proximal Phalanx and Distal Phalanx
The 3 portions of each finger (2nd through 5th digits) are the: Proximal, Middle, and Distal Phalanx
The 3 parts of each phalanx, starting distally, are the: Head, Body(shaft), and base
The name of the joint between the proximal and distal phalanges are the: Interphalangeal joint
The joints between the metacarpals and phalanges are the: MCP-Metacarpophalangeal joints
Largest of the Carpal bones? Capitate
Name of the hook-like process extending anteriorly from the Hamate? Hamulus or Hamular Process
Most commonly fractured carpal bone? Scaphoid
Mnemonics given in textbook of 8 carpal bones: Send letter to Peter to Tell'im (to) come home//Steve Left the Party to take Carol Home
In the anatomic position; Which of the bones of the forearm is located on the lateral (thumb) side? Radius
Which bone is located on the medial side? Ulna
Trochlear Notch is part of: Ulna
Radial Notch is part of: Ulna
Olecranon Fossa is part of: Distal Humerus
Trochlea is part of Distal Humerus
Coronoid Tubercle is part of Ulna
Coronoid Process is part of Ulna
Olecranon Process is part of Ulna
Coronoid Fossa is part of Distal Humerus
Which 2 joints of the forearm allow it to rotate during pronation? Proximal and Distal Radiulnar Joints
The articular portion of the medial aspect of the distal Humerus is called the: Trochlea
The similar structure found on the lateral aspect of the Distal humerus is called the: Capitulum
The deep depression located on the posterior aspect of the distal Humerus is the: Olecranon Fossa
The 1st and smallest of the arcs: Trochlear/Sulcus (groove)
The immediate double arc, consisting of the outer ridges of: The smallest arc-Capitulum The larger arc-Trochlea
The 3rd arc, which is part of the Ulna Trochlear Notch
Interphalangeal Ginglymus
Carpometacarpal of 1st digit Sellar
Elbow Joint(humeroulnar and Humeroradial) Ginglymus
Metacarpophalangeal of 2nd to 5th digit Ellipsoidal
Radiocarpal Ellipsoidal
Intercarpal Plane
Elbow Joint Ginglymus
Proximal and distal Radioulnar joint Trochoidal
Ellipsoidal are classified as freely movable or/ and allow movement in __ directions Diarthrodial/4
In addition to the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments the following five additional ligaments are also important in stability of the wrist joint True Statement
Which ligament of the wrist extends from the styloid process of the radius to the lateral aspect of the scaphoid and trapezium bones? Radial Collateral Ligament
What is the name of the 2 special turning or bending positions of the hand and wrist that demonstrate medial and lateral aspects of the carpal region? Ulnar Deviation and Radial Deviation
Which position is most commonly performed to detect fracture of the Scaphoid Bone? Ulnar Deviation
How does the forearm appear radiographically if pronated for a posteroanterior PA projection? The proximal radius crosses over the ulna
The 2 important fat stripes or bands around the wrist joint are the: Scaphoid Fat Stripe and Pronator Fat Stripe
The fat Pads around the elbow joint are valuable diagnostic indicators if the following three technical/positioning requirements are met with the lateral position Elbow Flexed 90 degree, Optimal Exposure Techniques used, and In a true lateral position
If the elbow is flexed correctly at 90 degrees, the posterior fat pad is visible if pathologic elbow trauma is present True
Projection that best demos scaphoid fat stripe PA and Oblique Wrist
Projection that best demos the pronator fat stripe Lateral Wrist
kV most commonly used for upper limb radiography 60 low to medium
Long or short Exposure time? Short
Large or small Focal Spot? Small
Most common minimum SID? 40 inches-100 cm
Grids are used if the body part measures more than ____ 10 cm
Type of intensification screens more commonly used Detail Screens (film-screen system)
Small to medium dry plaster casts: Increase ___ to___kV 5/7
Large Plaster Casts: Increase ____ to ____kV or ____% 8/10 100
Fiberlass Casts: Increase ___ to ___ kV or ___ % 3 to 4/25 or 30
Correctly Exposed radiographs visualize? soft tissue margins and Trabecular marking of all bones
General rule for upper limb radiography states: Collimation borders should be visible on all 4 sides if the IR is large enough to allow this without cutting off essential anatomy
Gonadal shielding is important for upper limbs on all persons who are? Child bearing age or younger
Radiographic Procedure that uses contrast media injected into the joint capsule to visualize soft tissue pathology of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints? Arthography
Best positioning routine for 2nd though 5th digits of hand? PA, PA Oblique, and Lateral
How much of the metacarpals should be included for PA projection of the digits? Distal half of the metacarpals
Why is AP thumb recommended instead of PA? The AP position produces a decrease in OID and increased resolution
Which projection of the thumb is achieved naturally by placing the palmar surface of the hand in contact with the cassette? PA Oblique
Which IR size should be used for a thumb routine? 8x10
A sesamoid bone is frequently found ajacent to the _____________ joint of the thumb? metacarpophalangeal
The entire metacarpal and trapezium must be demo'd on all projections of the thumb? TRUE
Where is the CR centered for an AP projection of the thumb? 1st MCP joint
A Bennet't Fracture involves? What method can be used to demo a Bennet's fracture? Base of the 1st metacarpal/A modified Robert's Method
What CR angle is required for a Modified Robert's projection? 15 degree proximal
Where is the CR ray centered for a PA projection of the hand? 3rd metacarpal joint *A minimum of 1 inches and 2.5 cm of the forearm should be radiographically for the PA projection of the hand
Some superimposition of the distal 3rd, 4th, and 5th metacarpals is expected with a well positioned PA oblique projection of the hand TRUE
Which preferred lateral position best demos the phalanges without superimposition? Fan Lateral
Which Lateral projection of the hand best demos a possible foreign body in the palm of the hand? Lateral extension
Position referred to as the "ball catcher's postion? Proper Name Norgaard Method
Ball Catcher's Position is commonly used to evaluate for early signs of? Rheumatoid Arthritis
The elbow is usually flexed ___ degrees for basic positions of the wrist? 90
How much rotation is required for an oblique projection of the wrist? 45 degrees
Which alternative projection to the routine PA wrist best demos the intercarpal joint spaces and wrist joint? AP projection-with hand slightly arched
Which positioning error is involved if significant aspects of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th metacarpals are superimposed in an oblique wrist projection? Excessive Lateral Rotation from PA
During a PA axial Scaphoid projection with the CR angle and ulnar flexion, the CR angle must be ___ degrees/proximally or distally? 10 to 15/proximally
How much are the hand and wrist elevated from the IR for the modifies Stetcher method? 20 degrees
How much CR angulation for the long axis of the hand is required for the carpal canal(tunnel) projection? 25 to 30 degrees
Which special projection of the wrist best demos the interspaces of the ulnar side of the wrist between the lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, and hamate bones? PA projection with radial deviation
Which special projection of the wrist helps rule out abnormal calcifications in the carpal sulcus? Carpal Canal or Gaynor-Hart
How much CR angulationw from the long axis of the forearm is required for the carpal bridge-tangential-projection? 45 degrees
Fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius? Barton's Fracture
Most common type of primary malignant tumor occuring in bone? Multiple Myeloma
Reduction in the qty of bone and atrphy of skeletal tissue? Osteoporosis
Sprain of tear of the ulnar collateral ligament? Skier's Thumb
An abnormality of the cartilage affecting ling bones? Achondroplasia
Transverse fracture extending through the distal aspect of the metacarpal neck? Boxer's Fracture
Hereditary condition marked by abnormally dense bone? Osteoporosis
Transverse fracture of the distal radius with posterior displacement of the distal fragment? Colle's Fracture
Narrowing of joint space with periosteal growths on the joint margins? Osteoarthritis
Fluid-Filled joint space with possible calcification? Bursitus
Possible calcification in the carpal sulcus? Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Soft Tissue swelling and loss of the fat pad detail visibility? Osteomyelitis
Mixed areas of sclrotic and cortical thickening along with radiolucent lesions? Osteopetrosis
Which two basic projections are required for the forearm? AP and lateral
4th carpometarcarpal joint plane
Accumulated Fluid within the joint cavity Joint Effusion
Local or generalized infection of bone or bone marrow? Osteomyelitis
Reverse of a Colle's Fracture? Smith Fracture
Fracture of the base of the 1st metacarpal Bennet's Fx
Painful disorder of the hand and wrist from compression of the median resulting nerve? Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Ginglymus Hinge Joint
Ellipsoidal Movement in 2 planes
Trochoidal Pivot
Plane Arthrodial, Gliding Plane, Synovial Joint
Sellar Saddle
Which two structures form the distal radioulnar joint? Distal radius and distal ulna
The 1st carpometacarpal joint is classified as a _________ joint? Sellar
An Ellipsoidal joint allows movement in ___ directions? 4
The radiocarpal wrist joint posses a ___ type of movement? Ellipsoidal
Carpal that contains a "hooklike" process? Hamate
Carpal that articulates with the thumb? Trapezium
2 carpal bones that are located most anteriorly as seen on the lateral wrist radiograph? Scaphoid and Trapezium
Which two structures primarily form the hinge-like structure and movement of the elbow joint? humeroulnar and humeroradial
The 1st metacarpophalangeal joint has which type of movement? Ellipsoidal
The Radiographic Criteria for a true lateral finger indicate equal concavity of the anterior and posterior aspects of the phalanges. ANTERIOR not posterior
With the radial head projections, what is the only difference between the 4 projections? The rotational positions of the hand and wrist
Which of the following best demo's the radial head using the trauma lateral Coyle method routine? 45 degree toward shoulder
Which of the following projections of the wrist will best demo the wrist joint and intercarpal spaces if the PT can assume this position? PA oblique Wrist
The Folio Method is performed to rule out? Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury
The Folio Method requires ____ projections of the thumbs to be taken with a single exposure? Bilateral-AP Stress Projection
How much rotation of the hands is required for the AP oblique bilateral-Norgaard Method for a HAND projection? 45 degree angle-performed to rule out non displaced fracture of the thumb requires bilateral
Which special projection of the wrist is ideal for demo-ing possible calcification in the dorsal aspect of the carpals? Carpal Canal or Gaynor Hart
A radiograph of the elbow demonstrates the radius superimposed over the ulna and coronoid process in profile. Which projection of the elbow has been performed? Trauma Axial Cateromedial Projection-Coyle Method 80 degree flexed elbow
Which best demos the coronoid process using the trauma lateral Coyle Method routine? 45 degrees away from the shoulder/elbow flexed at 90 degrees; hand pronated CR at 45 degree toward shoulder centered at Radial Head
Where is the pronator fat stripe located? Anterior to the distal radius
3rd carpal bone on the proximal row(from the lateral part of the wrist)? Triquetrum
The ulnar notch is located at the? Medial Aspect of the Distal Radius
Which of the structures is located on the distal Humerus? Styloid Process
Dislocation Displacement of joint
Subluxation Partial Dislocation
Sprain Rupture or tearing of connective tissue
Contusion Bruise, w/out fracture
Simple Fx closed
Compound Fx Open-breaks through skin
Comminuted Fx splintered or crushed
Impacted Fx Fragments driven into each other
A PT arrives with a metal foreign body in the palm of the hand which projection needs to be done? PA and Lateral Extension
Which Pathologic indication requires a decrease in manual exposure factors? Advanced Osteoporosis
Where is the CR centered for a PA projection of the 2nd digit? Affected PIP joint
Coronoid Process in Profile AP, Medial Rotation Oblique
Radial Head and Tuberosity without superimposition AP, Lateral Rotation Oblique
Olecranon Process in Profile Lateral Elbow
Coronoid Tubercle AP Elbow
Trochlear Notch in profile Lateral Elbow
Capitulum and Lateral Epicondyle in Profile AP, Lateral Rotation Oblique
Olecranon Process seated in Olecranon Fossa AP Elbow
A PT with a possible Barton Fx enters ER which positioning routine needs to be done? Wrist
A PT with a possible Smith Fx enters the ER. Which positioning routine needs to be performed? Wrist/Forearm
PT enters ER with a trauma injury in the ER. Evident- Colle's Fx. Which positioning routine needs to be done? AP and Lateral Forearm Projections to include the wrist
A PT enters ER with a dislocated elbow. The elbow is tightly flexed and is careful not to move it. Which positioning routine? 2 AP [rojections with acute flexion (Jones Method) and a Lateral Projection
PT with pssible fx of the Trapezium enters ER. Which positioning routine can be taken? Modified Robert's Projection
A PT with a history of carpal tunnel syndrome come in. The ortho surgeon suspects the bony changes in the carpal sulcus may be causing compression of the median nerve. Which projection best demos region of the wrist? Carpal Canal Position/Gaynor Hart
A PT who comes in for a hand series to evaluate the early evidence of Rheumatoid Arthritus. Best position? Norgaard Method
A PT has an injury to the Ulnar collateral ligament. The PT complains of pain near the 1st MCP joint. Initial xrays of hand do not indicate any fx or dislocation. Which projection should be used? PA thumb Projection-Folio Method
A PT enters the ER with possible foreign body in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. Initial wist radiographs are inconclusive in demo-ing the location of the foreign body. What additional projection can be performed? Tangential Projection-Carpal Bridge Projection
Snynovial articular capsule containing synovial fluid
Diarthrodial freely moveable
Amphiathrosis limited movement
Ginglymus hinge
Ellipsoidal Condyloid
Sellar Saddle
Plane Gliding
Trochoidal Pivot
Barton's A fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius involving the wrist joint
Boxer's Transverse fracture taht extends through the metacarpal neck/most commonly seen in the 5th metacarpal
Bennett's Fracture of the base of the 1st metacarpal bone, extending into the carpometacarpal joint, complicated by subluxation with some posterior displacement/ Film to best demo: Robert's Method 15 degree CR angle proximal
Colle's Transverse Fracture of the distal radius in which the distal fragment is displaced posteriorly an associated ulnar styloid fracture seem in 50 to 60% of cases
Smith's Reverse Colle's fx. or transverse fx of the distal radius with the distal fragment displaced anteriorly
CR centering for fingers 2-5 PIP Joint
CR for thumb IP
CR for hand 3rd MCP joint
CR for wrist Midcarpal
CR for forearm midforearm
CR for elbow Mid Elbow Joint
Created by: RadTGirl7 on 2010-10-17



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