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medical language4

Digestion System

The digestive system is also known as gastrointestinal (GI) system
or/o or smomat/o mean oral cavity
Digestion begins where oral cavity
Digestion is the break down of food into small liquids
oral means pertaining to the oral cavity
herpetic stomatitis inflammation of the oral cavity caused by the herpes simplex 1 virus also know as a cold sore or fever blisters
buccal pertaining to a cheek
gloss/o or lingu/o means tongue
glossectomy surgical removal of the tongue
sublingual pertaining to under the tongue aka hypoglossal
chemical digestion includes the secretion of saliva HCl stands for hydrochloric acid. HCl is found in the stomach.
gingivitis inflammation of the gingivae (gums)
Palat/o means hard and soft palate the hard and soft palate are located at the roof of the oral cavity.
palato plasy surgical repair of the palate.
pharyng/o means pharynx (throat)
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
esophagus is the tube connecting to the pharynx and the stomach
esophogotomy surgical incision of the esophagus
gastroectomy surgical removal of the stomach
duoden/o duodenum is the first section of the small intestine (small bowel)
espohagogastroduodenoscopy EGD viewing the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a lighted instrument.
jejun/o jejunum is the second section of the small intestine (small bowel)
jejunojejuno anostomosis a joining of anesection of the jejunum to another section of the jejunum.
ile/o ileum is the third section of the small intestine (small bowel)
ileostomy a new or artifical opening into the ilem
enter/0 small intestine or small bowel
dysentery a condition of painful small intestine
cec/o cecum is the first section of the large intestine (large bowel)
ileocecal pertaining to the ileum and the cecum
append/o and appendic/o appendix is a finger like projection off of the cecum
appendix is located where right lower quadrant
appendectomy surgical removal of the appendix
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
the asending colon is the second section of the large intestine
the transverse colon is the third section of the large intestine
the descending colon is the fourth section of the large intestine
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon id the fifth section of the large intestine
sigmoidoscopy viewing the sigmoid colon with a lighted instrument
rect/o rectum is the sixth section of the large intestine
rectocele a herniation of the rectum
an/o anus is the last section of the large intestine
anoplasty surgical repair of the anus
prot/o anus and rectum
proctologist a specialist in the study of the anus and rectum
col/o colon/o colon or large bowel or large intestine
colistis inflammation of the colon
colonoscopy viewing the colon with a lighted instrument.
hemat/o liver
The liver is located in the Right upper quadrant RUG
The liver is made up of sections called lobes
The liver is responsible for creating bile
Bile is secreated by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
The function of bile is to emulsify (emulsification) Emulsify means to break up fats.
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
chole bile or gall (way to remember it) (by golly)
cholecyst/o gall bladder
The gall bladder is responsible for storing the bile
The gall bladder is located inferior to the liver (below the liver)
laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gall bladder using a lighted instrument inserted through an opening in the abdomen.
pancreat/o pancrease
The pancreas is located posterior to the stomach (retro gastric) behind the stomach
pancreas creates enzymes that will aid in chemical digestion.
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancrease
choledoch/o common bile duct
A duct is a vessel
choledocholithotripsy crushing a stone in a bile duct.
peritone/o or abdomin/o or lapar/o means abdomen
pertionitis inflammation of the abdomen
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
laparoscope a lighted instrument to view the abdomen
diverticul/o diverticulum(a) pural with adding the a
Diverticula are blister like lesions found in the large bowel
diverticulosis abnormal condition of diverticula
diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticula
polyp/o polyp
polyp is a premalignant lesion that can be found in the large bowel.
polypectomy surgical removal of a polyp.
cholangioma tumor or mass of a bile vessel
cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder
choledocholithiosis abnormal condition of stone(s) in a bile duct
cholelithiasis abnormal condition of a gall stone(s)
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and the small intestine.
gastroenterocolitis inflammation of the stomach small intestine and colon.
hepatoma tumor or mass of the liver
palatitis inflammation of a palate
polyposis abnormal condition of polyp(s)
proctoptosis drooping or sagging of the anus and rectum aka prolapse of the anus and rectum
abdominoplasy surgical repair of the abdomen
adhesion tissue sticking together that should not be sticking together.
GERD GastroEspophagal Refllux Diease
Reflux means regurgitation
ulcerative colitis inflammation of the colon and the presence of ulcers
choledocholithotomy surgical incision of a bile to removal a stone which would be called a choledocholithectomy
colectomy surgical removal of the colon
colostomy a new opening or artifical opening in to the colon
stoma means a new or artifical opening
diverticulectomy surgical removal of a dicerticulum
enterorrhaphy suturing of the small intestine (bowel)
esophagogastroplasty surgical repair of the esophagus and stomach
gastrojejunostomy(stoma) a new or artifical opening of the stomach
gingivectomy surgical removal of a gingiva
glossorrhapy suturing of the tongue
lapareotomy surgical incision of the abdomen
cholangiogram a record of a bile vessel
cholecystogram a record of the gall bladder aka GB series
endoscope a lighted instrument to view within
esophagoscope a lighted instrument to view the espohagus
espophagoscopy the proess of viewing the espophagus with a lighted instrument
gastroscope a lighted instrument to view the stomach
gastroscopy the process of viewing the stomach with a lighted instrument
proctoscope a lighted instrument to view the anus and rectum
proctoscopy the process of viewing the anus and rectum with a lighted instrument
sigmoidoscope a lighted instrument to view the sigmoid colon.
aphagia(g-gag) a condition of no swallowing
bradypepsia a condition of slow digestion
abdominocentesis surgical puncture of the abdomen
dyspepsia (dyspepsic) a condition of difficult digestion
dysphagia (g-gag) a condition of difficult of painful swallowing
dysphasia(s-speech) a condition of difficult speech
gastrodynia a condition of stomach pain
gastroenterologist a specialist in the study of the stomach and small intestine.
gastromalacia a condition of softening of the stomach
glossopathy disease condition of the tongue
nasogastric pertaining to the nose and stomach
pancreatic pertaining to the pancreas
peritoneal ( the captain and...) pertaining to the peritoneum (abdomen)
proctosigmoidoscopy a process of viewing the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon with a lighted instrument.
stomatogastric pertaining to the oral cavity and stomach
hern/o hernia
hernia is a protrusion of an organ through the muscular wall in which it is contained
hernoirrhaphy suturing of a hernia
hiatal hernia herniation of the stomach through the diaphram
sphincter a ring of muscles that opens and closes
inguinal hernia herniation of the intestine into the scrotum
unbilical hernia herniation of the intestine through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus aka the belly button
strangulated hernia the hernia occludes the blood supply to the protruding tissue
anorexia (anorexic) a condition of no appetite
ulcer an erosion (wear away) of the skin and mucous membrane
ileus a bowel obstruction
Upper GI Series (UGI) means barium swallow
Lower GI Series means barium enema BaE or BE
Barium is a radiopaque (contrast) material
radiopaque (contrast) material will illuminate when exposed to x-rays
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) process of recording the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts using x-rays and a lighted instrument.
resection excision
espophageal artesia a congenital closure of the espophagus
endoscopic ultra sound (EUS) process of recording the GI tract using sound and a lighted instrument
Hemoccult, Hema-check, colo-rect, hematest, seracult, or guaiac mean a test for occult blood in the stool
occult means hidden blood that cannot seen with the naked eye
stool semi solid waste expelled through the anus
another medical term of stool is fessies
the act of exspelling feces from the body is called defecation or BM (Bowel Movement)
a normal BM is Brown and formed like a baby ruth candy bar
impaction an acccumulation of feces in the bowel
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
diarrhea loose watery stools
constipation difficult defecation (drink more water to help)
obstipation constipation caused by a bowel obstruction (ileus)
flatus or flatulence gas expelled through the anus
gastric lavvage washing out the stomach aka pumping out the stomach
gavage process of feeding a person through a nasogastric (NG) tube aka feeding tube.
emesis(emetic) pertaining to vomit(ing)
hemoptysis expectorating blood
postprandial pertaining to after meals
peforation(perforate) to stretch out or inflate
Jaundice a yellowish orangish discoloration of the skin and or sclera aka icterus (icteric)
Jaundic (icterus) is caused by a distruction of erythrocytes called hemolysis
Dead, broken up erythrocytes are called bilirubin
hyperbilirubinemia a blood condition of excessive bilirubin
peristalsis (peristaltic) pertaining to a wave like action of the bowels that propels the undigested food through the GI tract
borborygmos the groaning and gurgling sounds made during peristalic a activity
colic painful spasms of the GI tract
Halitosis bad breath
eructation (eructate) belching or burping
melena (melanotic) pertaining to black, tarry, pungent stools indicative of blood in the fecal matter
pungent a very strong aroma
Dental caries extreme dental (tooth) decay
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
cirrhosis a chronic degeneration of liver cells
absorb (absorption) movement of nutrients into the blood stream
enzymes chemical catalysts
chemical catalysts are chemicals that causes a reaction to occur
N+V nausea and vomitiong
BS Blood Sugar or bowel sounds or breath sounds
IBD inflammation bowel disease
Peg percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
TPN total parenteral nutrition aka hyperalimentation (hyperal)
O+P Ova(eggs) and parasites(worms)
PUD peptic ulcer disease
LFT's liver function tests
LFT's include 1. SGOT aka AST 2. SGPT aka ALT 3. ALKaline phosphatase (ALK. Phos)
SL sublingual
AC before meals
DX diagnosis
P.C. after meals
PO by mouth
NPO nothing by mouth
QD ORQD everyday
BID twice a day
TID three times a day
QID four times a day
QOD every other day
q every
qh every hour
q 2 h every two hours
a before
p after
c with
s without
Created by: Brandyfasting