|Brethren of the Common Life ||A Roman Catholic religious community founded in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ.
|Ulrich Zwingli ||A humanist and Catholic priest that led the church in Zurich in its break from Roman Catholicism, in 1519.
|Peace of Augsburg ||A compromised agreement that allowed each German state to determine its religion, either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism.
|Ninety-Five Theses ||Ninety-Five theses questioning the doctrine of indulgences which was posted on the Castle Church in Wittenberg in 1517.
|Preacherships ||Preachers, men with superior education, who were required to deliver about a hundred sermons a year, each lasting about forty-five minutes.
|The four basic theological issues. ||How is a person to be saved?
Where does religious authority reside?
What is the Church?
What is the highest form of Christian life?|
|Luther's answer to, How is a person to be saved? ||Luther believed that salvation was achieved by faith alone. |
|Luther's answer to, Where does religious authority reside? ||Luther declared that religious authority lies in the Bible and an individual’s interpretation of it.
|Luther's answer to, What is the Church? || Luther proclaimed that the Church contains the entire Christian community.
|Luther's answer to, What is the highest form of Christian life? || Luther asserted that every Christian was equal and that one should glorify God in his or her own way.
|What were some church problems? ||Clerical immorality, clerical ignorance, and clerical pluralism|
|Who was Martin Luther? ||Martin Luther was a German Monk who started the protestant reformation. He began his reformation after a man named Johann Tetzel began selling indulgences on behalf of the church. Luther considered this wrong and therefore wrote his Ninety-Five Theses.|
|What were indulgences? ||Indulgences were something a person could gain in order to relieve themselves of some of their sins. Gaining an indulgence also relieves oneself or their loved ones from time in purgatory. |
||A Catholic idea that, during communion, the bread and wine actually transform into the body and blood of Christ. |
|What is consubstantiation? ||A protestant idea that, during communion, Christ is present. However the bread and wine do not transform. |
|What was the Diet of Worms? ||The Diet of Worms was a meeting where the Holy Roman Emperor asked Martin Luther to recant his beliefs. |
|What were the only two sacraments that Luther believed were established by Jesus Christ? ||Baptism and Holy Communion. |
|What was the Colloquy of Marburg? ||A statement of unity after the meeting of Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli. |
|Who was Charles V? ||The Holy Roman Emperor. Once the King of Spain. |
|What were Luther's ideas about women? ||Based on his idea that all Christians are equal, women would be included, which had not been done by the Catholic Church. Protestants also established schools where girls as well as boys would be literate in the classroom. |
|Who were anabaptists? ||Protestants that believed that only adults could make a free choice about religious faith, baptism, and entry into the Christian community. They also believed in predestination, that God had decided before time who would be damned and who would be saved.|
|Who was John Knox? ||John Knox began to reform of the Church in scotland and in 1560 established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. |
|Who was John Calvin? ||John Calvin was the creator of Calanism. And he began building Geneva "a city that was a Church". He believed in predestination, or that God had chose before time who would be damned and who would be saved. |
|The Institutes of the Christian Religion ||A book written by John Calvin. Described his belief of the absolute power of God and how totally weak humans were. |
|Genevan Consistory ||A powerful group of people, consisting of twelve laymen and the Company of Pastors. The groups duties were "to keep watch over every man's life and to admonish those whom they see leading a disorderly life." |
|Henry VIII ||Began the reformation in England after the Pope took too long to decide whether or not to allow an annulment for Henry VIII and his Wife. After his wife had a baby girl Henry VIII was angry and wanted another wife. He needed a male heir. |
|Act of Supremacy ||An English law declaring the King, instead of the Pope, the head of the English Church. |
|Pilgrimage of Grace ||A massive multi-class rebellion because the King of England, King Henry VIII, seized all monastic land and attempted to sell it. |
| Archbishop Cranmer ||Archbishop Cranmer simplified the liturgy, invited protestant theologians to England, and prepared the first “Book of Common Prayer” (1549). |
|Pluralism ||The practice of clerics holding several benefices simultaneously but seldom visited their benefices, let alone performed the spiritual responsibilities those offices entailed. |
|What are Benefices? ||Offices|
|What was the Elizabethan Settlement? ||The Elizabethan Settlement were the events that led to the restoration of the Church of England. For instance everyone was required to attend Church of England services, if one refused they were fined. |
|What is a theocracy? ||A theocracy is a form of government in which god or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities.|
|What is the meaning of "Sola Scriptura"? ||Scripture Alone
|Who led the Switzerland Reformation? ||Ulrich Zwingli|
|What is an Elect person? ||Someone who is traveling to heaven once deceased. |
|Even though the French are Catholic, why are they rooting for the Lutherans? ||Because Lutheranism creates conflict and a divided Germany and the French hate the Habsburgs. |
|Who were the Huguenots? ||French Calvanists.|
|Who were the Presbyterians? ||Scotland Calvinists.|
|Who were the Puritans? ||English Calvanists.|
|Who were Jesuits? ||Members of the Society of Jesus.|
|What were the Society of Jesus' goals? ||To resist international spread of Protestantism, and spread Christian education all over Europe.|
|What were the Ursuline Order's goals? || To combat heresy in the Christian education, give young women an education, and to re-Christianize society by doing this.|