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Skills for OT I

Chapter 1-3

What is the measurement or quanification of a variable or the placement of a value on something? Assessment
What is a dynamic process in which the practitioner makes clinical judgments based on data gathered during the examination? Evaluation
What is the process of obtaining a history, performing relevant systems reviews, and selection and administering specific tests and measures? Examination
What is the measurement or the range of motion of a joint of the body? Goniometry
What is a federal law enacted to protect health care-related information? Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
What is a system developed to organize a medical record that uses a common list of patient problems as its base? Problem-oriented medical record (POMR)
What is sensation and awareness about the movements and position o body parts or the body? Proprioception
What is Soap? Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan
What is the ability to recognize the form of an object by touch? Stereognosis
What is the ability to recognize or differentiate two blunt points when they simultaneously applied to the skin? Two-point discrimination
What is used to designate the person who is treating or working with the patient or client? Caregiver (therapist, nurse, aide, family member...)
Who is the person that receives treatment? Patient
What is treatment also referred to as? Intervention
What must be maintained at all times with the patient and the person involved with providing care? Safety
The patient _______ to perform maximally whenever his or her active participation is desired? Should be encouraged
The caregiver should: guide, direct, and instruct each patient
The caregiver should also ________ of the activity/equipment. give a demonstration or explaination
What are the types of communication? Verbal, written, and Nonverbal communication
What should be explained to the patient? The purpose of each activity, expected outcome, and method of performance.
Communication between the ________ will be necessary. caregiver, patient, and family members
No activity should be performed without... sufficient personnel and equipment available
All persons who assist with the patient's care... must be trained and competent; equipment must function properly and be safe and stable; and the patient must be evaluated to determine functional capacity
What will usually adversely affect the treatment? Lack of attention
What requires team members to meet collectively to problem-solve and reach decisions? Interprofessional Collaboration
What are three important factors used by the team to assist the patient ot effectively fulfill goals or needs? Collaboration, Coordination, Communication
Team members must be prepared to... recognize and value other member's professional knowledge and skills
Team members must be prepared to... work through role conflicts, understand the basic components of each member's profession, communicate effectively, and participate in leadership
Co-treatment = Teamwork
Examples of co-treatment: RN/LPN, OT/OTA, PT/PTA
The two caregivers must cooperatively... establish roles and activities the patient will perform.
What are the roles of the primary caregiver? Their roles are the evaluation, Plan of Care, therapeutic intervention, assign tasks and responsibilities, establishes goals/outcome, evaluates results of treatment and patient response.
What are the roles of the assistant? Their roles are to perform treatment activities and communicate frequently with evaluating therapist.
The primary caregiver must be aware of... activities that the assistant performs.
The assistant must understand... the rationale for the treatment, and inform the primary caregiver of the patient's response.
What should the therapist do before seeing the patient? Review the medical record.
What does the patient's medical record include? Physician's notes, Current hx and findings, test results, diagnosis, request for tx, nursing notes, medications, and consultation to other specialties.
What are the shared values, norms, traditions, customs, art, history, folklore, and institutions of a group of people? Culture
What is a set of academic and interpersonal skill that allow individuals to increase their understanding and appreciation of cultural differences and similarities within, among, and bt groups? Cultural Competence
What is having an awareness of the nuances of one's own and other cultures? Cultural Sensitivity
What is reffered to as the differences in race, ethnicity, language, nationality, or religion among various groups within a commuinity, organization, or nation? Cultural Diversity
What is demonstrationg both sensitivity to cultural differences and similarities and effectiveness in using cultural symbols to communicate? Culturally Appropriate
What is belonging to a common group often liked by race, nationality, and language with a common cultural heritage or derivation? Ethnic
What is a socially defined population that is derived from distinguishable physical characteristics that are genetically transmitted? Race
What should the caregiver learn about and research before treatment? Cultural Norms and traditions
What does HIPAA stand for? Health Insurance Accountability and Portability Act of 1996
What is HIPAA? A federal law to protect health care information.
How does HIPAA benefit the patient? Allows the patient more access to their helath information, and allows them to control the use of their health information.
How do you avoid violating HIPAA? Avoid leaving paperwork in public areas, and avoid open discussion about a patient in public areas.
What must be done initially before treating a patient? Must inform patient about proposed tx, alternative tx available, and known risks.
What process allows the patient to consent or reject proposed tx? Informed consent
What is done when the patient refuses tx? Enter the refusal in the medical record and document reason for refusal.
_____ have legal rights to make a diagnosis, but _____ can make a diagnosis within the scope of their practice. Physicians; OT
What are the two primary methods used to gather information and data? 1. Observation and Interviews2. Specific Test and Measures
What should be used to gain the most from the patients responses and to determine what the patient has actually told you? Active listening
During the active listening what must the caregiver alos look for? Nonverbal signs of discomfort
What must patients and family members expect about the care they recieve? To be informed and consulted
What is the absence of oxygen in the tissues? Anoxia
What is the pulse that is found when a stethoscope is placed on the chest wall over the apex of the heart? Apical pulse
What is the absence of breathing? Apnea
What is the variation from the normal rhythm? Arrhythmia
What is listening for sounds produced with the budy using the unaided ear or stethoscope? Auscultation
What is a slow heartbeat? Bradycardia
What is the period when the least amount of pressue is exerted on the walls or the arteries during the heartbeat; usually indicated the resting phase of the heart? Diastole
What is labored or difficult breathing? Dyspnea
What is a disurbance of rhythm? Dysrhythmia
What is the passive phase of respiration when the person breathes out; also referred to as exhalation? Expiration
What is an abnormally high blood pressure? Hypertension
What is abnormally low blood pressure? Hypotension
What is the active phase of respiration when the person breathes in; also referred to as inhalation? Inspiration
What is a conditon in which breathing is easier when the person is seating or standing? Orthopnea
What is a palpable wave of blood produced in the walls of the arteries with each heartbeat or contraction? Pulse
What is an abnormal discontinuous nonmusical sound heard on auscultation of the chest, primarily during inhalation; also called a crackle? Rale
What is the act of breathing? Respiration
What is SOB? Shortness of breath
What is an instrument used to measure blood pressure; it may use a mercury column or an enclosed air-pressure spring system? Sphygmomanometer
What is an instrument used to convey sounds produced in the body of a person to the ears of the examiner? Stethoscope
What is a shrill, harsh sound, especially the respiratory sound heard during inspiration in laryngeal obstruction? Stridor
What is a temporary suspension of consciousness caused by cerebral anemia; fainting? Syncope
What is the period when the greatest amount of pressure is exerted on the walls of the arteries during heartbeat; usually indicates the contractile phase of the heartbeat? Systole
What is abnormally fast heartbeat? Tachycardia
What is a measurement of person's body temperature, heart and respiration rate, and blood pressure; also referred to as cardinal signs? Vital signs
Why are vitals signs important? They are indicators of general health or physiological status.
What should be established so changes in the values cased by exercise or other activity can be determined? Baseline measurement
If found at rest the cause should be determined before initiation of any activity that could affect the vital signs... Abnormal baseline values
What are some factors that increase and decrease vital signs? physical activity, environment temp., age, emotional status, physiological status (disease, trauma, medication)
What are dangerous responses to activity? mental confusion, fatigue, exhaustion, lethargy, slow reation of movement or response to commands, nausea, syncope, vertigo, < BP, pupil constriction/dilation
What is the caregiver's role to vital signs? They should moniter patient during & after tx for any undesirable sign and symptoms
What is body temperature? Indication of intensity or degree of heat w/in the body
What does a humans body temp. normally do? Remains relatively constant regardless or environmental temp.
What are exceptions to human body temp.? -exposed to extreme heat/cold-humidity & physical exertions involved
Normal ranges for body temp. 96.8 - 99.3
Average body temp. 98.6 rectal - 97.8*establish a norm for each patient
When are you considered to have fever? above 98.6
What is the term for body temp above 100? Pyrexic
Sites to take body temperature... oral cavity, rectum, axilla, ear canal, inguinal fold
What is the most common body temp. site? Oral cavity
What is the most accurate body temp. site? Rectum
What is the least desirable body temp. site? Inguinal fold
What is the term for body temp below 106? hyperplexic
What are factors affecting body temp.? Time of day, enviromental tem, age, physical activity, emotional activity, site of measurement, menstrual cycle, oral cavity temp after drinking hot/cold beverage
What is the indirect measure of the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart? pulse
What indicates rate of heartbeat? Pulse
What is the normal range of pulse? 60-100 bpm
What are some factors affecting pulse? Age, gender, enviromental temp, infection, emotionl status, medication
What measures BP? Sphygmomanometer
What is the blood pressure at contraction of the left ventricle? systolic
What is the blood pressure at the time of the rest period of the heart? Diastolic
Normal blood pressure range: 120mmHG/80mmHg
Factors associated with hypertension: obesity, physical inactivity, excessive use of nicotine, alchohol, or salt, arteriosclerosis, diabeties, oral contraceptives, advanced age, kidney disease, race, diet
What is defined as a systolic pressure that is consistently below 100mmHg? Hypotension
What is a common site used to measure blood pressure? Brachial artery
Should you round off the numbers when reporting the values? no
What is a good way to not bias you findings when dealing with vital signs? Do not expect a certain value by listening to what the patient has told you instead of listening for the correct value.
What are proper positions of the patient during a BP measurment? Patient may sit, stand, or lie during procedure, but upper extremity must be supported with the forearm and arm at the approximate level of the heart to reduce inaccurate measurements.
What are factors affecting BP? Age, physical activity, emotional status, medications, size and condition of arteries, arm position, muscle contraction, blood volume, dehydration, cardiac output, site of measurement.
What are contraindications of BP? Caregiver should be aware of abnormal BP responses to exercise or other tx activities. May be necessary to modify or terminate the patients tx if abnormalities are serious.
What is respiration comprised of? One inspiration and one espiration.
Normal range of respirations: 12 to 18 respirations per minute
What are factors affecting respiration? Age, Physical activity, emotional status, air quality, altitude, disease.
What is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage? Pain
Response to pain: is highly personal and subjective, and it is whatever the patient says it is existing wherever and whenever he or she says it does.
What accompanies pain? Emotional and spiritual responses such as suffering or anguish.
What is an evaluation of the cause of the patient's pain including but not limited to location, intensity, duration of pain, aggravating and relieving factors, effects of activities of daily living, sleep patterns... Pain assessment
What is the use of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to control a patient's identified pain? Pain management
Pain: cramping, dull, aching muscle
Pain: sharp, shooting nerve root
Pain: sharp, bright, lightninglike Nerve
Pain: burning, pressurelike, stinging, aching sympathetic nerve
Pain: deep, nagging, dull bone
Pain: sharp, severe, intolerable fracture
Pain: throbbing, diffuse vasculature
Caregiver should communicate with the patient and family in what terms? Layman's terms
What is an HEP? Home exercise program
What should instructions for a HEP include? They should include an outline, of the exercises or activities, frequency of performance of the program, number of repetitions for each exercise, precautions or contraindications for each exercise, required equipment, specific instructions and diagrams...
What is a necessity between the caregiver, patients, family members, others practitioners, and co-workers? Communication
What are different forms of communication? Written, verbal, and nonverval communication
How can patient-caregiver rapport be established? It can be established quickly through the use of effective communication or delayed by the lack of it.
What is lay language? ex. "bend" rather than "flex"
How does the tone, volume, and inflection of your voice effect the message? It can add to or detract the message.
How can you determine it the patient understand the given instructions? By getting the patient to repeat the instructions and demostrate activities.
Why must we be careful with touching? It may convey caring and can be therapeutic, or can be seen as sexual implications. appropriate touching vs. inappropriate touching
What should be done if touching is necessary? state reason why...
What type of instructions are more easily read than handwritten ones? Typed or printed
What should be the primary goal of each person, facility, and service area involved with patient care or tx? Patient safety
What is the absence of microoranisms that produce disease; the prevention of infection by maintaining a sterile condition? Asepsis
What is when something is rendered unclean or unsterile; an item, surface, or field is considered to be contaminated whenever it has come into contact with anything that is not sterile? Contamination
What is the use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy blood-borne pathogens on a surface or items to the point where they are no longer capableof transmitting infectious particles? Decontamination
What is the destruction or removal of pathogenic organisms, but not necessarily their spores? Disinfection
What is the production of a disease or harmful condition by the entrace of disease-producing germs into and organism? Infection
What is the separation from others? Isolation
What are practices that help to reduce the number and spread of microorganisms? Medical asepsis
What are tiny living animals or plants that can cause disease? microorganism
What is pertaining to or origination in a hospital? Nosocomial
What is a microorganism that produces disease? Pathogen
What is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or tissues? Sepsis
What is a hard, thick-walled capsule formed by some bacteria that contains only the essential parts of the protoplasm of the bacterial cell? Spore
What is containing no microorganisms; free from germs? Sterile
What is the process by which all microorganisms, including spores, are destroyed? Sterilization
What is a bodily injury caused by physical means, with disruption of the normal continuity of structures? Wound
Created by: brittb12