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Review OT

OT Terminology

QuestionAnswer
Spatial Relations Determining the position of objects relative to each other; ability to perceive the self in relation to other objects
Form Constancy Recognizing forms and objects as the same in various environments, positions and sizes
Visual Motor Integration Coordinating the interaction of information from the eyes with body movements during activity
4 Benefits of Slant Boards * Increase perception - letter formation form easier to see * Builds up small muscles in the hand * Holds paper in place *Encourages use of helping hand
What does the screening process do? Allows us to look at a child's school function and challenges in a quick, informal (or sometimes using parts of formal testing) to determine relevant OT needs
What are some children's "occupations" that students have that we can help with? * sitting, focussing for learning, writing stories, doing math problems, creating and organizing age appropriate projects, moving on the playground or in gym, keeping track of belongings and assignments, making friends
What does the word occupation mean? The words comes from an older use of the term that refers to how one spends their time
How do OT's and COTA's help students overcome challenges to school function? * Intervention *Environmental accommodations * Working with the school team to determine the students best learning styles and cues
OT's have training in what fields? *Neuroscience *Biology * Kinesiology * Anatomy * Ergonomics * Psychology * Group Dynamics
Give 3 specific examples of what we do... *Regulation * Handwriting * Organization
Discuss Organization.... Addresses students difficulty with praxis. Praxis is the process of creating an idea/project, organizing it, sequencing the steps and completing it in a feasible time frame.
Praxis: the process of creating an idea/project, organizing it, sequencing the steps and completing it in a feasible time frame.
What is regulation? Implementing a program graded for a child's intellectual development that helps him/her gain control of their self regulation. This is done wither individually or in classroom in-services
Describe the history of OT is the Lowell School... It has been fragmented due to changes in personnel and a period of time with no OT services. Traditionally, the OT/COTA services had been contracted. Now, with a full-time COTA and FT system wide OT, marks changes in the service model.
Some of the SPED director's goals for the OT program have included: *Creating an OT service data base (done) *Piloting a screening process (done) * Providing in-services (continuing) *Developing a preventative hands skills program for K's with the system wide OT team *Decrease referrals by preventative measures
How many students are at the Lowell School and what percent arrive on an IEP? 354; a little less than 10%
For many kids on my caseload, OT can be the only place they can: * Succeed, take risks and feel good about what they have done. * The art and science of OT is to find just right challenges and to establish and maintain a therapeutic relationship
2 Important things that OT's do: * Provide a safe environment for the children we serve * Educating educators not only about OT, but also about disabilities and expectations (what kids can do). **We are a valuable resource about so many things)
OT's see the child as: A whole
What are some special challenges that affect the quality of services? *Budget (supplies, compensation) * Increased caseload, decreased prep time * Booked schedule - little room to reschedule treatments when meetings occur * Ot has to do a lot of treatments - take away eval time, swamped
Perceptual Motor Skills: *Any unusual position of head/eyes when student is engaged in visual tasks * How is students visual memory for words, sentence, #'s, pictures * What evidence is there that the students may "see" mats. in a distorted manner.
What are the eligibility guidelines for SPED? *If a child is unable to progress effectively in regular ed and require special ed in order to successfully develop the child's individual education potential (not behavior, not labels)
Chapter 766 and Public Law 94-142 (Individuals with Disabilities Act... Impose certain requirements on public school systems and educators to ensure that students receive appropriate SPED and related services (legislation)
What is the vision for WPS? Successful Learning and respect for all
Personal OT files: *Can have notes, memory aids *Not accessible or revealed to authorized school personnel or 3rd party * May be shared with student, parent or temporary sub * If released to school personnel it becomes part of a student record
Advocate: A person other than an employee of the school system or the state, who assists parents during the eval process
Special Education Records should have: *Copy of file access log (form SR-1) * Current IEP * Progress Reports * Education History * Testing Reports from school personnel
Autism: A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction
Developmental Delay: The learning capacity of a young child (age 3-9) is significantly limited, impaired, or delayed and is exhibited by difficulty in one or more certain area.
List the areas a child must have one or more difficulty in in order to be categorized as developmentally delayed? receptive and or expressive language, cognitive abilities, physical functioning, social, emotional, or adaptive functioning, and/or self help skills.
What are the 9 Types of Disabilities: 1. Autism 2. Developmental Delay 3. Intellectual Impairment 4. Sensory Impairment 5. Neurological Impairment 6. Emotional Impairment 7. Communication Impairment 8. Physical Impairment 9. Health Impairment
M.G.L Chapter 766 and IDEA... Ensures that all students ages 3-22, are provided with a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment, regardless of the degree of disability
Individualized Education Plan: *Document designed to meet students' individual needs *Written statement for each student with a disability that is developed,written,and revised in applicable statues *Lists services the school will provide * Reviewed at least 1 x/year;revised any t
K Screening Purpose: To identify those children who may require further, in depth evals.
K Screening Looks at: Social, behavioral, competency, readiness concepts, language and communication skills, fine and gross motor skills, ability to separate from parents
3 Facts about K Screening: * 45 minutes * Play Based activities * Students interact with a K environment
What is unacceptable at the first CST? Referral to Special Ed
Syntax: Grammar, sentence structure, language rules
Alignment: Act of lining up to a line or each other
Converge: To tend to meet in a point or line, to focus, incline toward each other, as lines which are not parallel
Convergence: The act of fact of converging
Dipthong: A continuous monosyllabic speech sound made by gliding from the articulatory position for one vowel toward that for another as oy in toy
Diverge: To tend or proceed from a common point in different directions; to deviate from a given course or line, to differ or vary
Pragmatic: Concerned with practical consequences or values; sensible
Semantics The study of word meaning; especially as they develop and change; the study of the relationships between signs or symbols and that which they represent
Phonology: The study of the sounds of a particular language; they system of sounds used in a language
Neurodevelopment: The progressive growth and development of the nervous system
Encode: To convert, as a message, into a code
Decode: To translate, as a coed message, into the original language or form
Sedimentary: Pertaining to rocks / solids
Modulation: Refers to the brains ability to regulate activity level, may include facilitation or inhibition
Radial Side: Toward the thumb, precision side
Ulnar Side: Toward the little finger, power side
DIP, PIP, MP: Distal Interphalangeal Joint, Proximal IP, Metacarphalangeal joint Order of finger from tip to bottom: DIP, PIP, MP
Petit Mal: Type of seizure characterized by a momentary lapse of consciousness that starts and ends abruptly
Postural Control: Using righting and equilibrium adjustments to maintain balance during functional movements
Postural Insecurity: Fearfulness of movement or change in posture
Public Law 94-142: U.S. Federal Law requiring free and appropriate public education for all handicap children up to age 21
Oculomotor: Pertains to movements of the eye ball
Perceptual Processing: Organizing sensory input into meaningful patterns
Nystagmus: rhythmic, constant and rapid involuntary movement of the eye ball
Neurologist: Specialist who diagnoses and treats diseases of the nervous system
OT referrals may be increasing due to... in part to poor habits as opposed to a learning disability.
K Screening Purpose: To identify those children who may require further, in depth evals.
K Screening Looks at: Social, behavioral, competency, readiness concepts, language and communication skills, fine and gross motor skills, ability to separate from parents
3 Facts about K Screening: * 45 minutes * Play Based activities * Students interact with a K environment
What is unacceptable at the first CST? Referral to Special Ed
Syntax: Grammar, sentence structure, language rules
Alignment: Act of lining up to a line or each other
Converge: To tend to meet in a point or line, to focus, incline toward each other, as lines which are not parallel
Convergence: The act of fact of converging
Dipthong: A continuous monosyllabic speech sound made by gliding from the articulatory position for one vowel toward that for another as oy in toy
Diverge: To tend or proceed from a common point in different directions; to deviate from a given course or line, to differ or vary
Pragmatic: Concerned with practical consequences or values; sensible
Semantics The study of word meaning; especially as they develop and change; the study of the relationships between signs or symbols and that which they represent
Phonology: The study of the sounds of a particular language; they system of sounds used in a language
Neurodevelopment: The progressive growth and development of the nervous system
Encode: To convert, as a message, into a code
Decode: To translate, as a coed message, into the original language or form
Sedimentary: Pertaining to rocks / solids
Modulation: Refers to the brains ability to regulate activity level, may include facilitation or inhibition
Radial Side: Toward the thumb, precision side
Ulnar Side: Toward the little finger, power side
DIP, PIP, MP: Distal Interphalangeal Joint, Proximal IP, Metacarphalangeal joint Order of finger from tip to bottom: DIP, PIP, MP
Petit Mal: Type of seizure characterized by a momentary lapse of consciousness that starts and ends abruptly
Postural Control: Using righting and equilibrium adjustments to maintain balance during functional movements
Postural Insecurity: Fearfulness of movement or change in posture
Public Law 94-142: U.S. Federal Law requiring free and appropriate public education for all handicap children up to age 21
Oculomotor: Pertains to movements of the eye ball
Perceptual Processing: Organizing sensory input into meaningful patterns
Nystagmus: rhythmic, constant and rapid involuntary movement of the eye ball
Neurologist: Specialist who diagnoses and treats diseases of the nervous system
OT referrals may be increasing due to... in part to poor habits as opposed to a learning disability.
Letter formation can provide: Kinesthetic reinforcement for reading and spelling
2 examples of Motor planning: Touch your nose, knee, elbow and ears Copy a 3D pattern
Vestibular: Interpreting stimuli from the inner ear receptors regarding head position and movement.
Proprioception: Awareness of posture, movement and changes in equilibrium and the knowledge of position, weight and resistance of objects in relation to the body.
Depth Perception: Determining the relative distance between objects, figures, or landmarks and the observer and changes in planes on surfaces; ability to determine the relative distance between self and objects and figures observed.
Kineshesia: Identifying the excursion and direction of joint movement; persons sense of position, weight, and movement in space. The receptors for kinesthesia are located in the muscles, tendons and joints.
Figure Ground: Differentiating between foreground and background forms and objects; person's ability to distinguish shapes and objects from the background in which they exist.
The nervous system develops up until what age? 7
Sensory Integration: Ability of the CNS to process sensory information to make an adaptive response to the environment; also refers to a therapeutic intervention that uses strong kinesthetic and proprioceptive stimulation to attempt to better organize the CNS.
ADD: Characterized by the inability to focus attention and impulsiveness; often diagnosed in children
ADHD: Characterized by the inability to focus attention and impulsiveness and hyperactivity; often diagnosed in children
What are 2 usual indicators of ADHD? Under responsive and auditory filtering problems
What are some examples of fine motor speed and dexterity? Sorting cards, stringing beads, moving pennies
What OT test is used to check for fine motor speed and dexterity? Bruininks
Ocular muscles still develop until what age? 8
Dysarthria (dysarthric): Group of speech disorders resulting from disturbances in muscular control
Dyslexia: Impairment of the brain's ability to translate images received from the eyes into understandable language.
When are reversals common up to? Can still be found in first grade, but in second grade it can be problematic
Dyspraxia: Difficulty or inability to perform a planned motor activity when the muscles used in this activity are not paralyzed.
Apraxia (Apraxic): Inability to motor plan, execute purposeful movement, manipulate objects or use objects appropriately
Increase holding posture against gravity can help with what? Posture in class
Motor Planning: Ability to organize and execute movement patterns to accomplish a purposeful activity; performing new motor activities
Spelling Words: Focussed, vacuum, embarrass
Visual Perception: Brains ability to understand sensory input to determine size, shape, distance and form of objects; ability to interpret what one sees
Sensorimotor Component: The ability to receive input, process information and produce output
Praxis: Conceiving and planning a new motor act in response to an environmental demand, ability to conceive and organize a new motor act
Motor Control: Using the body in functional and versatile movement patterns
A big spit in the performance and verbal score could indicate what? A Learning Disability High Verbal and Low Performance often = NLD High Performance and Low Verbal often = Dyslexic
What are the 7 sub-tests of the Gardner Test of VP? 1. Visual Memory 2. Spatial Relationships 3. Form Constancy 4. Sequential Memory 5. Visual Closure 6. Visual Figure Ground 7. Visual Discrimination
Activity Tolerance: The ability of the sensory organ to receive information
Asperger's Disorder: Severe and sustained impairment in social interaction and development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities
Auditory Defensiveness: Over sensitivity to certain sounds (i.e. vacuum cleaners, fire alarms)
Autism: Developmental disorder characterized by a severely reduced ability to communicate and emotionally relate to other people
Behavior Modifications: Process of reinforcing desirable responses; food, praise and tokens may be used.
Flexion: Act of bending a body part
Grip Force: Pressure exerted on a held object or in lifting and object
Heavy Work: Exerting up to 500-100 pounds of force occasionally. 25-50 pounds force frequently or 10-20 pounds of force constantly to move objects.
Joint Protection: Application of procedures to minimize joint stress.
Learning Disability: Learning problem that is not due to environmental causes, MR, or emotional disturbances. Often associated with problems in listening, thinking, reading, writing, spelling and math
The motor room does what for a child in the classroom? Helps kids attend and be more organized
What would we ask for/about when a teacher brings up an issue with a student (behavior, language problems, attention, etc.)? *Family/home changes *Health *How is it affecting school function?
If a problem was brought to our attention (formally or informally); we would... *Do a classroom observation *COTA might observe and give info to OT to do a formal screening
Describe handwriting: *Use top/down (cognitive) and bottom up (kinesthetic approaches) to address handwriting production in terms of legibility & rate.
Why introduce keyboarding? It is considered a best practice approach to address significant graphomotor dysfunction
What are some outcomes of OT screening? *No services recommended * No services recommended but accommodations suggested * Used suggested recommendations and check back at a specified point in time * OT on a reg. Ed plan Full OT Eval (or team eval) recommended
Why would we see a child on a regular Ed plan? This is typically for students who don't have other learning needs (e.g. a child with messy handwriting)
What is OTR'a role functionally in the school? *OT's do formal evals and assessments, write the students goals and objectives with input from the COTA's, and oversee treatment plans. They also develop workshops for the IA's and teachers.
What is the COTA's role functionally in the school? Carry out treatment plans, attend meetings (team and student annual reviews), provide in-services and student observations, develop support materials and resources for teachers.
OT/COTA team involvement: *Child Study Process *Family Meetings *Annual Reviews *IEP or Re-Eval Meetings *Special Team Meetings with high profile cases *Team meetings *Transition meetings (preschool, middle school) *K Screenings
What are the Lowell School Team Pros: *Very organized * Fells like suggestions, recommendations and accommodations are thoroughly followed *If a strategy does not work, we get feedback on it *We get copies of the student's IEP's and relevant reports in a timely fashion
What are the Lowell School Team Cons: *Caseload size (# students/treats *Helpful to have reasonable access to school supplies to do our jobs; supplies needed to do bare minimum for record keeping i.e. file folders, staples, post-its *Need a Mac format computer
How have you seen OT change over the years? *Decrease the caseload to more manageable * Focus on younger levels primarily (form good habits young) *Float for preventative measures *Typing Group *More in-services
When is a grip hard to change? After first grade
Accommodations: Modifications that are typically provided by gen. ed w/in the gen ed environment ex. Preferential seating,pencil grip or coop learning s *Do not involve modifying the material content but do allow students to receive info in a more effective manor.
Inspection of Student Records: *Parents& legal guardian & students 14 yr + *Made available w/in 2 consecutive work days after initial request to guidance counselor/principal *Copies will be furnished *Prof.qualified staff will be available at request to interpret *3rd party can loo
Palmar supinate grasp: Large crayon held with a fisted hand, wrist is slightly bent, palm of hand faces slightly upward, arm moves as a unit, from shoulder to hand. Seen in ages 1-1.5
Digital Pronate Grasp: Pencil held with fingers, wrist straight, wrist turned with palm facing table top, wrist slightly bent inward on thumb side, arm and hand move as a unit from elbow to finger tips. Seen in ages 2-3
Static Tri-Pod Posture: Tool held with crude approximation of thumb, index and middle fingers, ring and little fingers only slightly curled, pencil grasped high on shaft, continual adjustments with other hand, no fine, localized movements,hand moves as a unit, seen in ages 3.5-4
Pervasive Development Disorder (PDD): Severe & pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interacton or verbal & nonverbal communicaton skills,or when stereotypical behavior,interests & abilities are present but the criteria do not allow to categorize features under autistic
Peabody Development Motor Scales: Norm and criteria referenced test for 7 year old children that assesses gross motor, praxis, fine motor and visual motor integration.
Hand Use Screening: *Oppose all fingers to thumb (look, then don't look) *Fully extend fingers from fisted, neutral position *Grasps (Supinated, pronated, mid-position) *Quality of muscle tone,strength, coordination *Tremos? *Drop objects easily? Difficulty releasing o
List some OT Evals: *CHAS: Children's HW Asses. Scale *TVM-R: Test of Visual Motor Skills Revised * Sensory Profile *School Function Asses. *TVPS-R: Test Visual Perceptual Skills Revised(non-motor) Beery Bruininks Pictures/forms/letters/#'s/spatial orientation & seq
What do we look for when observing Handwriting: Manuscript or cursive,larger or smaller than expected, irregular formation, reversals, rotations of letters and words,any difference in reproduction of pictures, letters, words, #'s, sentences. What differences are noted copying & reproducing from memory
What are any circumstantial or marked changes in handwriting ability? stress, subject area, time of day, day of week
What is a 504 Plan? Section 504 of the Rehab act 1972 (regular ed law) *eligible if: 1. have a physical or mental disability which substantially limits 1 or more major life activity 2. Have a record of such a disability 3. Are regarded as having a disability
What is a disability defined as by the legislature 504 Plan? any substantial limitation of a major life activity: self-care, manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, learning or working
What are the two type of student records? 1. Transcripts 2. Temporary Record Both are kept at the school a child attends or graduated or last attended
What are transcripts? Contains minimum data necessary to reflect the student's education process and can be limited to name, address, phone number, DOB, course titles, grades, grade level completed and year. Kept by school system at least 60 years after the student leaves
What is a temporary Record? All information not contained in the transcript such as standardized test results, class rank, extra curricular activities, teacher and counselor evaluations. This information is destroyed no later than 5 years after the student leaves the school system.
Current Performance Levels: State what the student can currently do & identify key stumbling blocks *Connect this to annual measurable goals *Becoming starting points for determining the goals & the goals become the end points for student accomplishment for the IEP
What are benchmarks? Describes the amount of progress a student is expected to make within a special segment of the year.
Intellectual Impairment? Permanent capacity for performing cog. tasks, functs or prob solving;is sig. limited or impaired & is exhibted by more than 1 of following:slowr rate of learning,disorganized patterns of learning,diff. w/adaptive behav. +/or diff. under. abstract concepts
Neurological Impairment: Capacity of the nervous system is limited or impaired with difficulty exhibited in 1 or more of the following: use of memory,contro & use of cog. fxing,sensory & motor skils,speech,language,org. skills,info processing,affect social skils or basic life fxs
Preschool Intake Review Team (P.I.R.T): Unit of school personnel which is assembled as a team,along with parents to determine whether the preschool child who has been referred and evaluated is in need of services. This group reviews ,assesses and defines the needs of referred preschool childre
Phonics: A method of teaching beginning reading, spelling and pronunciation through phonetic interpretation or words
Phonetics: The study of speech sounds in respect to how they are provided, transmitted, received and transcribed. The system of the speech sounds of a particular language
To Get to Study: Whole language, short vowels, auditory processing, grips, tests, UE/LE disassociation, stages what can do K-5, narrative writing, all seizures (febrile)
Created by: we4chabs on 2011-02-03



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