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Ch. 2 Isomers

structural isomers same molecular formula and molecular weight. different physical and chemical properties
Stereoisomers same chemical formula and same atomic connectivity. Only differ by how atoms are arranged in space. includes geometric, isomers, enantiomers, diastereomers, meso compounds
Geometric compounds compounds differ in the position of substituents attached to a double bond or cycloalkane. If only one substituent on either side of double bond use cis and trans, Z and E for more substituted compounds
chiral an object that is not superimposable upon its mirror image. Carbon that has 4 different substituents and lack plane of symmetry
enantiomers nonsuperimposable mirror images of chiral objects. opposite configuration at all chiral centers. have same physical and chemical properties, except optical activity and how they react in chiral environment
rotates plane of polarized light right (clockwise) dextrorotary (+)
rotates plane of polarized light left (counter clockwise) levorotary (-)
specific rotation specific rotation([a])=(observed rotation (a))/(concentration g/ml x length dm)
diastereomers non-mirror image configurational isomers. cis and tran alkenes are diastereomers. required to have multiple chiral centers, 2^n possible stereoisomers
meso compound a molecule with an internal plane of symmetry.
conformational isomers same molecules, only at different positions in their rotation
Created by: adam87