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Biology Terms - MCAT

QuestionAnswer
Centromere central region of a chromosome (or chromatid)
Centrioles cylindrical organelles within the centrosome
Centrosome area which serves as a base for spindle formation
Chromatin uncoiled DNA which appears granular
Asters structure of spindle fibers radiating from centrosome
Kinetochores connection point of spindle fiber to centromere on chromosome
Binary fission simple form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes
Budding replication of nucleus with unequal cytokenesis; in yeast and hydra
Regeneration regrowth of a lost or injured body part; replacement by mitosis
Parthenogenesis development of unfertilized egg into an adult organism
Gametocytes specialized cells that undergo meiosis
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that code for the same traits; 1 maternal and 1 paternal
Synapsis process of chromosome pair overlapping
Tetrad synaptic pair of homologous chromosomes; four chromatids
Crossing over homologous chromosomes exchange equivalent pieces of DNA
Chiasmata points where crossing over occurs
Genetic recombination result of crossing over; exchange of genetic data
Disjunction separation of homologous chromosomes by chance to daughter cells
Alleles a pool of unique genes coding for alternative forms of a given trait
Cleavage embryonic development through a series of rapid mitotic divisions
Determinate cleavage results in a cell whose future pathways are determined early
Indeterminate cleavage results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism
Morula earliest solid ball of embryonic cells in the uterus
Blastula hollow sphere of cells
Blastulation process of the morula developing a fluid-filled cavity called, a blastocoel
Blastocoel fluid-filled cavity in the developing morula
Blastocyst the mammalian blastula
Trophoblast cell layer that surrounds the blastocoel and and gives rise to the chorion
Endometrium mucosal lining of the uterus; prepared by progesterone; location of implantation
Gastrula three-layered structure: ectoderm, endoderm, and archenteron
Archenteron newly formed cavity of the two-layered gastrula; develops into the gut
Blastopore opening of the archenteron
Deuterostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the anus
Protostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the mouth
Induction the differentiation of a group of cells by another group (the organizers)
Inducers chemical substances passed by organizers during induction
Notochord rod of mesodermal cells; induces the formation of the neural groove/tube
Fetus the growing embryo (beyond 8 weeks gestation)
Placenta
Umbilical chord connection between fetus and placenta; develops from the allantois and yolk sac
Amnion thin, tough membrane containing amniotic fluid which acts as a shock absorber
Chorion a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion and extends chorionic villi
Fetal Hemoglobin Hb-F; greater affiliation for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin
Umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Ductus venosus a shunt that diverts the fetal blood to bypass the liver
Foramen ovale a shunt that delivers blood from the RA to the LA bypassing the pulmonary circuit
Ductus arteriosus a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta
Centromere central region of a chromosome (or chromatid)
Centrioles cylindrical organelles within the centrosome
Centrosome area which serves as a base for spindle formation
Chromatin uncoiled DNA which appears granular
Asters structure of spindle fibers radiating from centrosome
Kinetochores connection point of spindle fiber to centromere on chromosome
Binary fission simple form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes
Budding replication of nucleus with unequal cytokenesis; in yeast and hydra
Regeneration regrowth of a lost or injured body part; replacement by mitosis
Parthenogenesis development of unfertilized egg into an adult organism
Gametocytes specialized cells that undergo meiosis
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that code for the same traits; 1 maternal and 1 paternal
Synapsis process of chromosome pair overlapping
Tetrad synaptic pair of homologous chromosomes; four chromatids
Crossing over homologous chromosomes exchange equivalent pieces of DNA
Chiasmata points where crossing over occurs
Genetic recombination result of crossing over; exchange of genetic data
Disjunction separation of homologous chromosomes by chance to daughter cells
Alleles a pool of unique genes coding for alternative forms of a given trait
Cleavage embryonic development through a series of rapid mitotic divisions
Determinate cleavage results in a cell whose future pathways are determined early
Indeterminate cleavage results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism
Morula earliest solid ball of embryonic cells in the uterus
Blastula hollow sphere of cells
Blastulation process of the morula developing a fluid-filled cavity called, a blastocoel
Blastocoel fluid-filled cavity in the developing morula
Blastocyst the mammalian blastula
Trophoblast cell layer that surrounds the blastocoel and and gives rise to the chorion
Endometrium mucosal lining of the uterus; prepared by progesterone; location of implantation
Gastrula three-layered structure: ectoderm, endoderm, and archenteron
Archenteron newly formed cavity of the two-layered gastrula; develops into the gut
Blastopore opening of the archenteron
Deuterostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the anus
Protostomes organisms for which blastopore develops into the mouth
Induction the differentiation of a group of cells by another group (the organizers)
Inducers chemical substances passed by organizers during induction
Notochord rod of mesodermal cells; induces the formation of the neural groove/tube
Fetus the growing embryo (beyond 8 weeks gestation)
Placenta
Umbilical chord connection between fetus and placenta; develops from the allantois and yolk sac
Amnion thin, tough membrane containing amniotic fluid which acts as a shock absorber
Chorion a membrane that completely surrounds the amnion and extends chorionic villi
Fetal Hemoglobin Hb-F; greater affiliation for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin
Umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Ductus venosus a shunt that diverts the fetal blood to bypass the liver
Foramen ovale a shunt that delivers blood from the RA to the LA bypassing the pulmonary circuit
Ductus arteriosus a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta
Created by: stringstrummer22 on 2010-06-02



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