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Ch 20 Adler/Carlton

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Under what conditions is the technologist required to administer drugs in the radiology department? under direct supervision of a licensed practitioner, usually a radiologist
Any chemical substance that produces a biologic response in a living system is known as: a drug
A drug is more specifically known as: a substance used as medicine to aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease
The science concerned with the origin, effects, and uses of drugs. pharmacology
A classified system of names. a nomenclature
What are three ways a drug can be classified? name, action, or method of legal purchase
What are the three important names used to classify a drug? chemical, generic, trade
The first name likely to be applied to a drug, is the actual structure of the drug, is often complex, and seldom important to the technologist. chemical name
The name given to a drug when it becomes commercially available, simpler and easier to pronounce and never capitalized. generic or nonproprietary name
The name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company, usually short and easy to remember. brand name
Terms used interchangeably to indicate a specific generic drug manufactured by several different companies. trademark, brand name, trade name, proprietary name
An annual publication that contains current product information, color coded for easy reference, lists drugs by both generic and brand names, and gives accepted uses, side effects, contraindications, and doses for available drugs. PDR, Physician's Desk Reference
What is the next source of drug information if a PDR is not available in the radiology dept? hospital pharmacist
Drugs that have similar chemical actions are classified as: drug families
Drugs that relieve pain are classified as: analgesics
Drugs used to treat high blood pressure are classified as: antihypertensives
How are drugs legally classified, according to federal laws? prescription or non-prescription
Drugs that require an order by a legally authorized health practitioner, usually a physician. prescription drug
The document that specifies the name of the patient, name of the drug, and the dosage regimen. prescription
Drugs obtained legally without a prescription. non-prescription or over-the-counter drugs
Vitamins, supplements, and herbal remedies are classified as: dietary supplements, not classified as drugs
The type of preparation or the manner in which the chemical agent is transported in the human body is known as the: dose form of a drug
What does the dose form determine? the speed, or onset, of the drug's therapeutic effect
What are some of the common dose forms of a drug? tablets, capsules, suppositories, solutions, suspensions, and transdermal patches
A granulated drug that has been compressed into a solid hard disc. tablet, the most common oral dose form and one of the easiest to administer
A powdered or liguid drug contained in a gelatin shell that dissolves in the stomach and releases its contents. capsule
A drug that is breathed into the respiratory system. inhalant
A dose form shaped for insertion into a body orifice such as the rectum, vagina, or urethra; dissolves once inserted. suppository
A dose form in which one or more drugs are dissolved in a liquid carrier; usually rapidly absorbed and may be administered orally or parenterally. solution
A dose form in which one or more drugs in small particles are suspended in a liquid carrier; administered orally and should be shaken thoroughly just before administering; never administer intravenously suspension
A dose form that permits a drug to be applied on the skin surface, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream; drug is released gradually over a period of time transdermal patch
A tablet that is coated with a substance that delays the dissolution of the tablet until it is in the small intestines rather than the stomach, where it is normally dissolved. enteric-coated tablet
Why are enteric-coated tablets used? replace drugs that might irritate the stomach (such as aspirin) or for drugs destroyed by the acid in the stomach
Any injection of a drug with a needle and syringe beneath the surface of the skin. parenteral
The study of how a drug is absorbed into the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body, and leaves the body. pharmacokinetics
What are the four basic factors that influence the movement of a drug? absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
The movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood. absorption
The movement of a drug from the blood to various tissues and organs of the body. distribution
The chemical alteration of various substances (drugs). metabolism
The movement of drugs out of the body. excretion
What main organ is involved in the altering of a drug so it can be eliminated from the body by excretion? liver
Why do older adult patients (65+) require a reduction in medication dose? decreased absorption, metabolism, and excretion
Why do children, especially in the first year of life, require a reduced medication dose? reduced capacity for metabolism and excretion
A drug's effect that can be modified by previous or concomitant administration of another drug or food, or by sex, genetics weight, and route and time of administration. drug interaction
What effects do drugs have on the human body? clinically desirable actions and undesirable effects
What are the adverse drug effects in the human body? side effects, toxic effects, allergic reactions, idiosyncratic reactions
An abnormal response to a drug caused by individual genetic differences. idiosyncratic reaction
A result from a drug acting on tissues other than those intended, which causes a response unrelated to the intended action. side effect
An adverse effect that is produced if the therapeutic dose is greatly exceeded causing a poisonous effect. toxic effect
The body's immunologic system is hyper-sensitive to the presence of a drug. allergic reaction
An immediate allergic reaction that is considered mild. hives
An immedicate allergic reaction that is severe and life-threatening, and may include respiratory or circulatory collapse. anaphylaxis
A less severe allergic reaction that may not become evident for hours or even days after a drug is administered. delayed
The four levels of sedation developed by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. minimal, moderate, deep, general anesthesia
A drug-induced state during which a patient will respond normally to verbal commands. minimal sedation
A drug-induced depression of consciousness occurs, but patients respond purposefully to verbal commands; now referred to as conscious sedation. moderate sedation
A drug-induced depression of consciousness occurs during which patients cannot be easily aroused; can respond purposefully after repeated or painful stimuli. deep sedation
A drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable even to painful stimuli. general anesthesia
The golden rules of drug administration, to be followed by the tech when preparing to give drugs, and referred to as the five rights of drug administration. Right...drug, amount, patient, time, route
When should the label be checked, to ensure the right drug is administered? (3 times) when container is removed from shelf, when drug is removed from container, when container is replaced (check label carefully as some drug names sound similar; never use an unlabeled drug)
How do you ensure the right amount of a drug is used? measure carefully and accurately
How can you be sure the right patient is being given a drug? check the armband for proper identification and ask the patient to state their name and date of birth and address patient by name before giving the drug
Who determines the right time to give a patient medication? physician or practitioner who orders the drug; tech doesn't determine the time but should administer the drug at the time specified
Who specifies the route of drug administration? physician; tech must be familiar with terminology associated with most common routes
The general routes used for drug administration. oral, sublingual, topical, parenteral
The drug is taken by mouth; most common method of drug administration. oral
The drug is placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve. sublingual
The application of a drug directly onto the skin, where it is diffused through the skin and absorbed into the bloodstream. topical
The drug is administered by injection or by another route other than the gastrointestinal tract. parenteral
The drug is administered within the muscle tissue. intramuscular
The drug is administered beneath the skin. subcutaneous
The drug is administered within a vein. intravenous
What are the three parts of a syringe? tip, barrel, plunger
The part of a syringe where the needle attaches. tip
The part of a syringe where the calibration scales are printed. barrel
The inside part of a syringe that fits into the barrel. plunger
The syringes that require the precise measurement of a small volume of drug. tuberculin & insulin
A syringe that comes in a variety of sizes including 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50ml. general-purpose
A syringe that has a locking device on the tip that holds the needle firmly in place. luer-lok
A syringe that has a tip located to the side rather than in the center. eccentric tip
A needleless system used for IV drug adminis-tration; has a white ring on the port; needles should not be used with this system. hep-locks
A needle is made of stainless steel, may or may not be disposable and has what three parts? hub, cannula or shaft, bevel
The part of a needle that attaches to the syringe. hub
The length of the metal part of a needle. cannula or shaft
The slanted part at the tip of a needle. bevel
How are needles sized? length and guage
The thickness or diameter of a needle. guage
The measurement in inches of the shaft portion of a needle. length
The length variation of a needle. 0.25-5 inches
The gauge variation of a needle. 14-28
What are shorter needles used for? subcutaneous injections
What are longer needles used for? intramuscular injections
What are needles 1-1.5 inches in length commonly used for? intravenous injections
As the diameter of a needle increases, the gauge number... decreases
As the diameter of a needle decreases, the gauge number... increases
What gauge needle is used for subcutaneous injections? 25-gauge
What gauge needle is used for intravenous injections? 20-or 21-gauge
What gauge needle is used for a large-diameter shaft most often used to draw a drug or solution into the syringe but seldom used to inject the drug into a patient? 18-gauge
The package label indicates both the length and the gauge of the needle. What does 20g/1½ stand for? the needle is 20 gauge and 1½ inches long
What size bevels are generally used for subcutaneous and intramuscular injections? long bevels
What size bevels are generally used for intravenous injections? short bevels
A device used to puncture a vein in which the needle is pulled up through a catheter and into a protective sheath after venipuncture to avoid accidental puncture. angiocath
A sealed glass container designed to hold a single dose of drug and intended for use only once. ampule
A small glass bottle with a sealed rubber cap and my contain multiple doses of a drug. vial
Refers to amount of fluid injected. bolus
Refers to a rapid injection; generally used in an emergency when immediate drug action is required. intravenous push
The intravenous infusion of a large volume of fluid. drip infusion
What info must be recorded on the patients chart any time a drug is administered? name/dose of drug, route of administration, date, time, site of injection if parenterally
What must be done if an error occurs in the administration of a drug, or if the patient experiences any adverse effects from the drug? document the details thoroughly
Who must follow the rules of drug documentation in the patient's chart? both student and radiologic technologist
What is the most common legal problem in which radiologic technologists are involved? errors associated with drug administration
Created by: Beverly Jo Miller-Cox Beverly Jo Miller-Cox on 2010-02-28



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