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G-Dawg's AP Terms

G-Dawg's AP Language Terminology

tone the author's attitude towards his/her material and/or his/her audience
style the distinctive way an author writes
literary allusions indirect references to works,events, or figures the author assumes the reader is familiar with
allegory a story or characterization through which the author presents an abstract or symbolic concept
hyperbole a deliberate exaggeration
onomatopoeia words that sound like what they are
antecedent the noun to which the pronoun refers
preposition word that shows the relationship of one noun to another-in a little phrase
syntax sentence structure
parallelism repetition of similar syntactical forms-used to emphasize an idea
antithesis the contrast of opposites within parallel clauses
paradox a reconciliation of opposites within parallel clauses
oxymoron a two-word expression of seeming contradiction
assertion opinions stated as facts
assumption a supposed fact that is never proved
qualification to modify, restrict, or limit
unqualified assertion an opinion stated as truth with no limitations or modifications
issue a debatable question that gives rise to different positions or stances
rebuttal an opposing argument
digression a departure from the main topic
refute to prove a person to be wrong
generalizations an assertion about a group or class
hypothesis an unproved theory, proposition, or supposition
circumlocution to talk in circles, a round-about way of saying something
recapitulate to repeat briefly; to summarize
objective without personal bias or prejudice
subjective opposite of objective!
exposition writing that explains
speculate to conject(ure), put together, guess, or infer
syllogism an arguement or form of reasoning composed of reasoning from a general statement to a particular statement to a conclusion
inference a conclusion drawn from evidence
appeals to authority using the endorsement of an "authority" to make an argument seem convincing
anecdote the retelling of an incident that may illustrate or prove a point.
rhetorical purpose/rhetorical stance why the speaker is attempting to persuade or influence the audience
dilemma an arguement necessitating a choice between two equally unfavorable or disagreeable alternatives
invective an emotionally violent attack using strong and abusive language
satire the ridicule of human vice or faults, or social institutions or customs, for the purpose of reform
narrative style the distinctive way an author plans his/her narrative
juxtaposition place side by side usually referring to contrasting or disparate items
non-sequitur a statement that does not follow logically from what preceded it.
inductive reasoning a form of reasoning which works from specific to the general
damning with faint praise intentional use of a positive statement that has a negative implication
deductive reasoning a form of reasoning that works from the general to the specific
simple sentence one independent clause
compound sentence two or more independent clauses
complex sentence one independent clause and one dependent clause
compound-complex sentence two or more independent clauses with one or more dependent clause
independent clause a suject and a verb whose idea is complete and can stand alone
dependent clause a subject and a verb whose idea is not complete and must have an independent clause to have it make sense.
alliteration repetition of initial sounds in two or more neighboring words--the repetition reinforces meaning
colloquial/colloquialism the use of slang or informalities usually not accepted in formal speech or writing
conceit afanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor--displays intellectual cleverness due to the unusual comparison being made
apostrophe direct address to an absent or imaginary person or abstraction, like love or liberty.
independent clause clause with a noun and a verb that can stand on its own
dependent clause clause with a noun and a verb that cannot stand on its own
periodic sentence sentence whose main clause is at the end, near the period.
loose sentence sentence that starts with the main clause and ends with many small phrases
subordinate clause aka subjunctive or dependent clause: cannot stand alone
theme the central meesage or idea of the work
metonomy meaning"changed label"(Greek) using the name of one bject is substituted for another closely related to it (the White House)
parody a work that closely imitates another to ridicule or create a comic effect.
four rhetorical modes exposition, persuasion or argumentation,description,and narration
sarcasm Bitter, caustic language (to tear flesh)used to ridicule, or belittle
subject complement the word or phrase that follows a linking verband complements or completes the subject of the sentence
Created by: dedegarrison