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Prax 0014 earth sci

Praxis II test 0014 science - earth science

earth science examines the structure and function of the earth. also extends studies into space and the universe. important because it directly relates to human actions and behaviors
4 principle components of earth that must work together in a constant complex system atmosphere (air), lithosphere (land), hydrosphere (water), biosphere (life)
5 layers of atmosphere Exosphere (300-600 -6,000 miles); thermosphere (includes ionosphere) (265,000-285,000 feet to 400+ miles); mesosphere (160,00- feet to about 285,000); stratosphere (23,000-60,000 to about 160,000 feet); troposhere (23,000-60,000 feet)
4 layers of Earth crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
crust 5-30 miles thick, not fixed, a mosaic of moving plates, outer shell
mantle 1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow), circulating currents, causing the plates to move
outer core 1,300 miles thick, viscous liquid, the Earth's magnetic field originates here
inner core 800 miles to the center of the earth, a solid
plate tectonics Earth's crust is divided into plates (about 20) each plate varies in size and thickness. these plates continually drift and shift. plates are found under continents (continental planes) and beneath the ocean (oceanic plates).
3 types of plate boundaries convergent (collision), transform (rubbing), divergent (separating)
convergent plates collision, results in mountains, volcanoes, ridges, recycling of crust
transform plates rubbing; results in earthquakes
divergent plates separating; results in new crust, rivers, oceans, lakes
processes of the Earth plants, humans, heat (solar energy and radioactivity), weathering, erosion, rock cycle
plants (biosphere) pull water (hydrosphere) and nutrients from soil (lithosphere)and release oxygen and water vapor into the air (atmosphere)
humans (biosphere) built Glen Canyon Dam using rock materials (lithosphere) to control a lake (hydrosphere)as the water evaporates, it moves into the air (atmosphere)
heat influences the Earth more than any other process in the universe. There are 2 sources (solar energy and radioactivity)
solar energy the Earth is on an axis the sun hits the surface at varying angles causing the major climates of the planet. The sun affects and influences the type of life in the various regions. It affects Earth's weather, which in turn affects vegetation and erosion
radioactivity Earth's core - radioactivity is responsible for plate tectonics, most volcanoes, and earthquakes which are located near plate boundaries. Radioactivity makes mountains, valleys, ocean basins, lake beds, islands, trenches and most other land forms
weathering the process of changing structures through the effects of wind, water, ice, sun and gravity
erosion the process of moving the weathered materials (rivers, winds)
rock cycle all rocks come from the mantle (except limestone)
3 types of rock igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
igneous rock forms when magma cools (ex. granite, pumice)
sedimentary rock forms when layers of sediments are compressed (ex. sandstone, limestone, coal, shale)
metamorphic rock forms through the transformation of igneous and sedimentary rocks through head and pressure (ex. marble, slate, quartzite)
weather cycle occurs in the trophosphere. 3 contributing factors: solar radiation, earth movement, water cycle
solar radiation heat energy (infrared radiation) from the sun that hits the Earth's surface is changed into head
Earth movement the seasons are caused by the orbit around the sun and the rotation of Earth upon its axis
water cycle a natural process in which water evaporates, condensates and precipitates (condensation-water vapor-precipitation-infiltration-evaporation-transpiration)
age of earth 5 million
% of earth covered with ocean 71%
% of earth's water that is ocean 97%
cm/year Earth's plates move 2-5 cm
geological history investigates how the Earth and its life-forms have developed over time
principle of uniformitarianism the scientific laws that govern Earth today are the same since the beginning of time ("the present is the key to the past")
law of superposition the oldest rocks and events are found at the bottom of formations, and the youngest are found at the top (the past is on the bottom)
eon a very long of indefinite period of time that explains the age of the universe and can be measured by billions of years
2 major eons of Earth history Precambian Eon, Phanerozoic Eon
Precambian Eon period of time from the formation of Earth (4.6 billion years ago) to the rise of life-forms (similar to present day life forms)
Phanerozoic Eon the rest of the time to present day. 3 eras are found within this eon - paleozoic, mesozoic, centzoic
Paleozoic Era Early life, 570-286 million years ago; trillobites, shells, mollusks, brachiopods, ecinoderm, rise of the first vertebrates, rise of land plants, rise of amphibian, insects, seed plants, and trees, and rise of reptiles
Mesozoic Era midle life, 245-144 million years ago; rise of mammals and dinosaurs, the rise of birds, the extinction of dinosaurs and the rise of flowering plants
Centzoic Era late life, 66 million years ago to present; the rise of primates, horses, hominids and modern man
meteoriod a stony or metallic particle that revolves around the sun
meteor created when meteorites are burning through the Earth's atmosphere
comet revolves around the sun and possesses a tail and a nucleus. the tail always points away from the sun due to the solar wind
constellations a type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky. there are 88 constellational regions. each region is named for a group of stars found within it.
5 moon phases new moon, crescent moon, quarter moon, gibous moon and full moon. [new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent]
waxing getting bigger (B) new moon to full moon
waning getting smaller (D) full moon to new moon
lunar eclipse the moon is blocked by the Earth's shadow [moon, Earth, sun]
solar eclipse the moon casts a shadow upon the Earth [sun, moon, Earth]
Created by: allie424 on 2009-11-04

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