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Praxis0014 geography

Praxis II test 0014 social studies - geography section

10 standards of NCSS 1. culture, 2. time, continuity and change, 3. people, places & environments, 4indiv dev&ID, 5individs,groups&institutions 6power,authority&governance 7production,distribution&consumption 8sci,tech&society 9global connections 10civic ideals and practices
4 main components of geography physical characteristics (lands and vegetation), geopolitical information (boundaries and capital cities), demographics (size, density, pop), economic information (agricultural and manufacturing)
5 themes of geography study location, place, interaction of people and environment, movement, region
place physical and human characteristics of a location
region an area with similar characteristics
conformal map presents land masses and the retention of proper shapes, but they are often distorted
fact-book maps examines the actual facts of events or activities in certain regions or specific places (ex. life expectancy rates)
historical maps illustrates the people of an area and the population (such as trade routes or religions)
map a visual representation of a particular area. Can depict a visible surface or can show how information about physical and human features are located, arranged and distributed in relation to another.
physical map reveals the features of actual geographical surfaces like mountains and rivers
relief map a topographical map
thematic map demonstrates the location of specific ideas or distributions (population of children,languages of world, time zones)
compass a tool used for determining specific directions on Earth's surface
compass rose the precise directions on a map or globe (N, S, E, W, NW etc)
direction a concept of space and location (right-left, up-down, north-south)
latitude the horizontal likes that run parallel to the equator and measure the distance in degrees north and south from the equator
longitude the vertical lines that run parallel to the prime meridian and measure the distance east and west from the meridian
major oceans 5 - over 70% of surface and provide 97% world's water. From largest to smallest: Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Indian and Southern Oceans
seven major continents from largest to smallest Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, Australia
major seas 3 - defined as a large area of water partly enclosed by land. South China sea, Caribbean Sea and Mediterranean Sea
major deserts Arabian, Atacama, Australian, Iranian, Kalahari, Namib, North American, Patagonian, Saharan, Sonoran, Takla Makan-Gobi, Thar, Turkestand
anthropologist a person who studies the history of people such as culture and language
cartographer a person who studies the science or practice of map drawing
geographer a person who studies land formations and the earth's composition
meteorologist a person who studies climates and the affects on the earth
sociologists a person who studies behaviors of people and how they impact the world
topographer a person who designs, describes and develops maps
3 types of regions formal, functional, perceptual
formal regions defined either by common human features and culture or by common physical features
functional regions organized around a central hub with the surrounding areas connected to the center by transportation systems, communication systems, manufacturing or trading
perceptual regions constructed around human feelings and attitudes of the area, these regions are defined by peoples' subjective images of an area and can be based on bias and stereotypes. Ex. the Appalachian region of the US
6 regions of the US New England, Mid-atlantic, the south, the midwest, the southwest, the west
physical characteristics include water systems, animal life, plant life, landforms and climate
human characteristics values, religious beliefs, language systems, political structures, economic methods and socioeconomic status
system a set of connected parts functioning together; two types- physical and human
4 types of physical systems atmosphere (air), lithosphere (ground and surface), hydrosphere (water) and biosphere (life)
3 ways humans impact earth 1. consuming natural resources and changing natural patterns. 2. by building structures. 3. by competing for control
results of human impact on earth population growth, urbanization increases, consumption of natural resources (oil, gas, water, coal) and migration of humans (reshapes landscape and modifies cultures)
3 types of resources renewable (can replenish themselves after use ex. plants and animals), non-renewable (can only be cultivated and used ones ex. minerals, oil, natural gas, coal) and flow (resources that must be used when, where and as they occur ex. water, sunlight, wind)
graduated symbol map Use symbols of different sizes to represent the numerical values of an attribute.
Dot map map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence of a feature or phenomenon.
Choropleth map which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income.
Isometric map quality of elevation above sea level. (3-D)
Cartograms A cartogram is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or Gross National Product – is substituted for land area
absolute and relative distance absolute distance is the cold and hard distance from one point to another. Relative distance is the distance that you are 'felt' to cover,
mental map mental maps and our spatial perception and feelings about places.
spatial distribution and density patterns of population settlement and density
formal region typically defined by a government or administrative group for the purpose of defining boundaries
functional region Functional regions are defined by their connections. For example, the circulation area for a major city area is the functional region of that paper.
perceptual/vernacular regions Vernacular Region (or Perceptual Region)- An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Devolution Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government to a regional, local, or state level. It is a form of decentralization.
environmental stress Pressure on the environment caused by human activities (such as generation of pollution) or by natural events (such as occurrence of a drought).
globalization process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.
understands the impact of devolution and/or supranationalism (e.g., former Soviet Union, former Yugoslavia, European Union) Extending beyond or transcending established borders or spheres of influence held by separate nations watch http://www.learner.org/series/powerofplace/page3.html
Geographic Information System (GIS) A geographic information system (GIS) lets us visualize, question, analyze, interpret, and understand data to reveal relationships, patterns, and trends.
Global Positioning System (GPS) The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense.
demographic trends by using census data and population pyramids A population pyramid is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
Temperature A temperature is a numerical measure of hot or cold. Its measurement is by detection of heat radiation or particle velocity or kinetic energy
Humidity Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air.
Pressure The weight of the air pressing down on the Earth, the ocean and on the air below causes air pressure. As air rises it cools. As the air cools, the humidity in it begins to condense into tiny drops of water/snow.
Wind Winds Drive Surface Ocean Currents. Global winds drag on the water's surface, causing it to move and build up in the direction that the wind is blowing
distribution of landmasses and bodies of water Note that Antarctica is much colder than the Arctic was during its winter season The Arctic consists mainly of ocean. During the summer, this surface is able to absorb considerable quantities of sunlight which is then converted into heat energy.
ocean and atmospheric currents s the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of theEarth.
Earth-Sun relationships rotation on axis and revolution around sun. Tilt and the seasons.
orographic effect (rain shadow)
absolute and relative humidity Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapor, per unit volume of total air and water vapor mixture. Relative humidity ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
atmospheric lifting ) convergent - air flows towards an area of low pressure; characteristic in low latitudes convectional - caused by surface heating;
weather fronts, air masses, and pressure systems A front represents a boundary between two air masses that contain different temperature, wind, and moisture properties. air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
major climate types tropical, dry, temperate, cold, polar
locate Earth’s biomes or ecosystems forest biomes, tropical, midlatitude, coniferous, grassland biomes, tropical savanna, midlatitude, desert biomes, tundra biomes, arctic, alpine, marine ecosystems study map. Tundra at the caps, tropical at equaor, temperate mid-latitude, major deserts Africa, middle east, Australia.
extrusive and intrusive volcanism When molten magma cools and hardens beneath the surface of the Earth, we say that it is intrusive volcanism.
folding and faulting faulting is when rocks break, and folding is when rocks bend.
ecoregions of the United States: Midlatitude forests, Midlatitude grasslands, Mediterranean forests and scrubs, Deserts, Mountains, Plains, Lakes and water systems, Tundra study map.
Created by: allie424