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Chapter 21 AP Euro

AP European Chapter 21 Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Jean le Rond D’Alembert coeditor of the Encyclopedie.
Assignats Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Bastille Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Bougeoisie Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
Revolutionary Calendar Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Committee of Public Safety Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Conspiracy of Equals Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature.
Consulate Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
National Convention The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Danton Led the Mountains with Robespierre-also executed with Robespierre.
David Napoleon’s painter-painted the famous portrait of Napoleon’s coronation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Directory Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Encyclopedie Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment -explained many aspects of society.
Estates General Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King’s finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.
Gabelle Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate’s list of grievances.
Girondists One of the two halves of the divided National Convention. More moderate than the opposing Mountains, led by Robespierre, they represented the countryside.
Great Fear Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.
Guillotine Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
Intendants Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems. Two main functions: enforce royal orders and weaken the power of the regionl nobility.
Levee en Masse Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Louis XVI King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention in 1793-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
Marie Antoinette Louis XVI’s wife and sister of Leopold of Austria - executed.
Robespierre A very radical Jacobin and member of the National Assembly-led the Mountains-began and led the Committee of Public Safety-began the Reign of Terror. He was executed in 1794 during the Thermidoean Reaction.
Sans-culottes (without breeches) Petty laborers and laboring poor who were not part of the National Convention - wore pants, not knee breeches-became a major political group in revolutionary France.
Tennis Court Oaths Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
First Estate Clergy. Less than 1% of the population
Second Estate Nobility. Roughly 2% of the population.
Third Estate Artisans etc. Everyone not in the First or Second Estate.
Thermidorean Reaction A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.
Ancien Regime The old order before the Revolution in France
Regicide The killing of the king
Versailles Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.
Mary Wollstonecraft English feminist author who wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
Berlin Decree 1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Joseph Bonaparte Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Confederation of the Rhine League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
The Grand Army Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.
Louis XVIII (1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
Napoleonic Code Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablihing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
Peninsula War France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.
Plebiscite A vote of the people.
Rosetta Stone Found by one of Napoleon's officers during the Egyptian campaign. Allowed people to decipher hieroglyphics.
Talleyrand French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
Saint Helena South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo.
Trafalgar (October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
Metternich Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Castlereagh British representative at Congress of Vienna.
The Hundred Days The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.
Created by: mr.bradley on 2009-08-27



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