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radiology 1

human radiology positioning

QuestionAnswer
23. Which parts of the sacrum form the joints with the ilia of the pelvis? auricular surfaces
24. The AP projection that demonstrates the dens using the Fuchs method differs from the AP projection (open mouth) because the Fuchs method: extends the chin and keeps the mouth closed
25. The radiographer should not use the Fuchs method to obtain the AP projection of the dens if the patient is: suspected to have a fracture or degenerative disease
32. Which evaluation criterion does not apply to the AP axial projection of the cervical vertebral column? C1 and C2 should be seen without mandibular superimposition
33. Which projection of the cervical vertebral column requires an SID 72"? lateral projection
34. Which maneuver should be used to help obtain maximum depression of the shoulders in the lateral projection of the cervical vertebral column? suspend respiration after full expiration
35. What should be done so that the magnified shoulder farthest from the IR is projected below the lower cervical vertebrae for the lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae? direct a horizontal CR to C4
36. What should be done to prevent mandibular rami from superimposing cervical vertebrae in the lateral projection of the cervical vertebral column? elevate the chin
37. What should be done to reduce the magnification caused by the increased OID distance in lateral projections of the cervical vertebrae? use a 72" SID
38. Which projection of the cervical vertebral column uses the same central ray direction and centering as hyperextension and hyperflexion studies of the cervical vertebrae? lateral projection
39. Which projection of the cervical vertebrae demonstrates the spinous processes elevated and widely separated? hyperflexion lateral projection
40. Which projection of the cervical vertebrae demonstrates the spinous processes depressed and in close approximation? hyperextension lateral projection
41. Which projection of the cervical vertebrae should produce a radiographic image showing the patient's mandibular body nearly perpendicular to the lower border of the radiograph? hyperflexion lateral projection
42. Which projection for cervical vertebrae must be exposed with a horizontal and perpendicular central ray? lateral
43. How should the central ray be directed for AP axial oblique projections of the cervical vertebral column? 15 to 20 degrees cephalically
44. How should the central ray be directed for PA axial oblique projections of the cervical vertebral column? 15 to 20 degrees caudally
45. Which projections of the cervical vertebral column best demonstrates the intervertebral foramina? AP axial oblique projection
46. Which position of the cervical vertebral column best demonstrates the left intervertebral foramina with the central ray angled 15 to 20 degrees cephalad? RPO
47. Which position of the cervical vertebral column best demonstrates the right intervertebral foramina with the central ray angled 15 to 20 degrees caudad? RAO
48. How many degrees from either the AP or the PA position should the entire body be rotated for oblique projections of the cervical column? 45 degrees
49.Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP projection (Fuchs method) of the cervical vertebrae? the entire dens should be seen through the foramen magnum
50. Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial projection of the cervical vertebrae? the spinous processes should be equidistant to the pedicles
51.Which evaluation criterion pertains to the lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae? all seven cervical vertebrae should be demonstrated
52.Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial oblique projection of the cervical vertebrae? the intervertebral foramina should be open the those farthest from the IR well demonstrated
53. Which evaluation criterion pertains to the PA axial oblique projection of the cervical vertebrae? the intervertebral foramina should be open with those closest to the IR well demonstrated
54. Which projection should be included in a cervical series if the lateral projection does not demonstrate the C7 vertebrae? lateral projection (swimmer's technique)
55. For the lateral projection (swimmer's technique) of the cervical vertebrae, how and where should the central ray be directed? perpendicular to the intervertebral disk space of C7 and T1
56. Which of the following structures are best demonstrated with the lateral projection (swimmer's technique)? lower cervical vertebrae
57. For the AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column, where should the central ray be directed on the anterior chest wall? slightly below the sternal angle
58. With reference to the patient, where should the top border of the IR be positioned for the AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column? 1.5 to 2 inches above the tope of the shoulders
59. For the AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column with the patient in the supine position, why should the patient's hips and knees be flexed? to reduce dorsal kyphosis
60. Which projection best demonstrates the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic vertebral column? AP projection of the thoracic vertebral column
61. When performing the lateral projection for the thoracic vertebrae, what is the preferred procedure that should be performed with the long axis of the vertebral column is not horizontal? lateral projection
62. To what level of the body should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column? elevate the lower or upper thoracic region with a radiolucent support
63. To what level of the body should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column? inferior angle of the scapula
64. What compensation should be made in the lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column on a recumbent patient when the lower thoracic region is not parallel with the table? angle the CR 10 to 15 degrees cephalad
65. Which of the following structures are best demonstrated with the lateral projection (swimmer's technique)? upper thoracic vertebrae
66. Which projection of the vertebral column best demonstrates kyphosis? lateral projection of the thoracic vertebral column
67. Which projection of the vertebral column best demonstrates scoliosis? PA projection of the thoracic vertebral column
68. Which projection of the vertebral column best demonstrates lordosis? lateral projection of the lumbar column
69. Why should the patient flex the hips and knees for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column? to reduce the lordotic curvature
70. How should the IR be positioned the for AP projection of the lumbar vertebrae and sacrum? centered on the level of the iliac crests
71. Which positioning maneuver should be performed to reduce the normal lordotic curvature for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column? flex the hips and the knees
72. Which plane or line of the patient should be centered on the midline of the table for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column? midsagittal
73. Where should the CR be directed for the AP projection of the lumbar vertebral column for a lumbosacral examination? L4
74. Which plane or line of the patient should be centered on the midline of the table for the lateral projection of the lumbar vertebral column? midcoronal
75. Which projections of the lumbar vertebral column best demonstrates intervertebral foramina? lateral projection
76. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the lumbar vertebral column when the vertebral column is parallel with the table? perpendicular
77. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the lateral projection of the lumbar vertebral column when the vertebral column is NOT parallel with the table? 5 degrees caudad for males
78. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the lateral projections of L5-S1 when the lumbar vertebral column when the vertebral column is parallel with the table? 8 degrees caudad for females
79. Which projection of the lumbar vertebral column best demonstrates zyapophyseal joints? perpendicular
80. Which vertebral structures are best demonstrated if a supine patient is rotated 45 degrees with the right side elevated and a perpendicular CR is directed at the lumbar vertebrae? AP oblique projection
81. Which vertebral structures are best demonstrated with the AP oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column with the patient RPO? zyapophyseal joints on the left side
82. Which vertebral structures are best demonstrated with the AP oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column with the patient LPO? zyapophyseal joints of the right side
83. Which positioning error most likely occurred if the zygapophyseal joints were not well demonstrated and the pedicle was quite anterior on the vertebral body in AP oblique projection radiographs of the lumbar vertebral column? the patient was not rotated enough
84. Which positioning error most likely occurred if the zygapophyseal joints were not well demonstrated and the pedicle was quite posterior on the vertebral body in AP oblique projection radiographs of the lumbar vertebral column? the patient was rotated too much
85.Which projection of the vertebral column demonstrates the "Scottie dog"? oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column
86. What is demonstrated if the Scottie dog is not well visualized? zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar vertebrae
87. How many degrees of body rotation are necessary for the AP oblique projection of the lumbar vertebral column? 45 degrees
88. Which projection of the lumbar vertebral column places the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the IR? AP projection
89. Which projection of the lumbar vertebral column places the midsagittal plane parallel with the IR? lateral projection
92. Which projection best demonstrates the left SI joint? AP oblique projection with the patient in RPO position
93. How many degrees of body rotation from the supine position are required for AP oblique projections of the SI joints? 25 to 30 degrees
94. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for AP axial projections of the sacrum? 15 degrees cephalad
95. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed if it is necessary to have the patient prone for a PA axial projection of the sacrum? 15 degrees caudad
96. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for AP projections of the coccyx? 10 degrees caudad
97. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed if it is necessary to have the patient prone for a PA projection of the coccyx? 10 degrees cephalad
98. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for lateral projections of the sacrum? perpendicular
99. How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for lateral projections of the coccyx? perpendicular
100. Which projection of the Ferguson method should be performed to best evaluate scoliosis? upright PA
91. Which projection best demonstrates the right SI joint? AP oblique projection with the patient in the LPO position
Created by: aliciafukunaga on 2009-03-31



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