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DU PA ABG & pH

Duke PA Arterial blood gas and acid/base balance

QuestionAnswer
PCO2 partial pressure of CO2
percent of CO2 carried in the plasma 10%
the faster and more deeply the patient breaths the more CO2 is blown off
as CO2 levels increase blood pH decreases
as CO2 levels increase blood PCO2 increases
a rise in PCO2 stimulates a rise in respiratory rate
in metabolic acidosis the lungs attempt to compensate by blowing off CO2
in metabolic alkylosis the lungs attempt to compensate by retaining CO2
Most of the CO2 content in the blood is HCO3-
Bicarbonate ion HCO3-
CO2 content is an indirect measurement of HCO3-
_____ is a measurement of the metabolic (renal) component of the acid-base equilibrium HCO3-
in respiratory alkylosis the _____ excrete HCO3 in an attempt to lower pH kidneys
the measure of the tension of O2 dissolved in the plasma PO2
patients in whom venous blood mixes prematurely with arterial blood have a decrease in ____ PO2
the indication of the percentage of hemoglobin filled with O2 O2 saturation
when ___% to 100% of the hemoglobin carries O2 the tissues are adequately provided with O2 92
non-inasive method of determining O2 saturation pulse oximetry
a negative base excess indicates metabolic acidosis
a positive base excess indicates metabolic alkylosis or compensation to prolonged respiratory acidosis
acidosis is present if the pH is less than 7.4
alkylosis is present if the pH is greater than 7.4
if the PCO2 is low in a patient who has been said to have acidosis the patient has metabolic acidosis
if the PCO2 is high in a patient who has been said to have acidosis the patient has respiratory acidosis
if the PCO2 is low in a patient who has been said to have alkylosis the patient has respiratory alkylosis
if the PCO2 is high in a patient who has been said to have alkylosis the patient has metabolic alkylosis
O2 saturation can be falsely increased by the inhalation of carbon monoxide
In patients with COPD the stimulus to breathe is not triggered by CO2 levels but by O2
Perform which test before performing an arterial puncture in the radial artery Allen test
low pH, low HCO3-, low CO2 metabolic acidosis
low pH, high HCO3-, high CO2 respiratory acidosis
high pH, high HCO3-, high CO2 metabolic alkalosis
high pH, low HCO3-, low CO2 respiratory alkalosis
pH <7.4 acidemia
pH >7.4 alkalemia
normal pCO2 40
normal HCO3- 22-29
__|__|__/ (bottom) | |X \ chem 7 creatinine
X |__|__/ | | \ chem 7 Na
__|X |__/ | | \ chem 7 Cl
__|__|X / | | \ chem 7 BUN
__|__|__/ (bottom) X | | \ chem 7 K
__|__|__/ (bottom) |X | \ chem 7 HCO3-
__|__|__/ | | \ X chem 7 glucose
if bicarb is low you expect pCO2 to be low
if pCO2 is high you expect bicarb to be high
example of cause of non-anion gap metabolic acidosis diarrhea
example of cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis excessive alcohol consumption
non-anion gap metabolic acidosis is characterized by loss of bicarb
anion gap metabolic acidosis is characterized by gain of acid
normal Cl- is 96-106
normal BUN is 7-18
normal glucose 70-115
normal creatinine 0.6-1.2
normal K 3.5-5.1
normal Na 135-145
normal anion gap 7-16
normal osmolality 275-295
primary etiology of respiratory acidosis lungs fail to eliminate CO2
example of a cause of metabolic alkalosis protracted vomiting
example of a cause of metabolic alkalosis ingestion of a large quantity of base
in a metabolic alkalotic state will you have hypokalemia or hyperkalemia hypokalemia
in a metabolic acidotic state will you have hypokalemia or hyperkalemia hyperkalemia
primary etiology of respiratory alkalosis lungs are eliminating too much CO2
in acute respiratory acidosis for every increase of pCO2 of 10mm pH decreases by .08
in chronic repiratory acidosis for every increase of pCO@ of 10mm, ph decreases by .03
in acute respiratory alkalosis for every decrease of pCO2 of 10mm pH increases by .08
in chronic respiratory alkalosis for every decreas of pCO2 of 10mm pH increases by .03
a pH which is too acid for the PCO2 metabolic acidosis
the only acid which can be exhaled via the lungs carbon dioxide
includes all of the body's acids except carbon dioxide metabolic acids
difference between the sum of the major anions and the major cations anion gap
_____ is the same as Respiratory Acidosis high pCO2
The normal value of pCO2 in arterial blood is __mmHg 40
implies a raised [H+] level with a normal PCO2 pure metabolic acidosis
high PCO2 causes molecules of CO2 and water to form carbonic acid which ionizes to increase both [HCO3-] and [H+] pure respiratory acidosis
Created by: bwyche on 2009-01-12



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