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Stack #171044

Processing Modules 5-6

QuestionAnswer
Whta are the 4 steps in the processing cycle? a. development b. fixing c. washing d. drying
Development is the 1st step in the processing cycle and converts the latent (invisible) image into a _________ image. manifest (visible)
During the development cycle, silver hadlide grains are reduced to _________ _________. metallic silver
T/F - Development provides optical density and contrast? TRUE
If unexposed crystals are reduced during development cycle, ________ is produced. fog
Chemical fog _____________density and ___________ contrast. increases density and decreases contrast.
As developer becomes depleted of electrons, it becomes ________________. oxidized.
T/F - Developing solution consists of solvent water, sequestering agents, developing agents, buffering agents, restrainer, preservative, starter solution and hardeners. TRUE
Sequestering agents (chelates) do what? They soften water.
The two main developing agents are ___________ & __________. Phenidone and hydroquinone.
T/F - Phenidone produces black (hi contrast) image and acts slowly. It also is more selective. FALSE. Hydroquinone produces black (hi contrast) image and acts slowly w/more selectivity.
What does Phenidone produce? Phenidone produces shades of gray quickly w/low selectivity.
Which developing agent controls toe of characteristic curve and which controls shoulder? Phenidone controls toe and Hydroquinone controls shoulder.
Working developer is made-up of 2 things... developer starter and developer replenisher.
Does starter solution have any acidic restrainer? Yes.
Starter solution INCREASES pH to normal value and provides potassium bromide. T/F? FALSE. Starter solution DECREASES pH to normal value and provides potassium bromide.
Does Replenisher have a higher or lower pH than starter? Higher.
Does repenisher have any bromide restrainer? No.
What chemical makes up restrainer? Potassium bromide.
What does the restrainer do? The restrainer (potassium bromide) is an antifog agent that protects unexposed crystals from chemical attack.
There are three factors that affect development. These are... Developer time, temp and chemistry freshness.
Replenishment rate depends on three factors: Area of film processed, type of emulsion and temperature of replenisher.
Does direct exposure film (thick emulsion) need higher or lower rate of replenisher? Higher due to thicker emulsion.
Is developer temperature important? Yes - it is critical and must be controlled. As temp increases, do does density; so do contrast and chemical fog slightly.
As film spends more time in the developer, does density decrease or increase? Increase.
Developer provides ____________ and ____________. Developer provides DENSITY & CONTRAST.
What does FIXER do? It stops further development of film.
On a pH chart, what are acidic #'s, alkali #'s and neutral #? 0-6.9 acidic;7 is neutral7.1 - 14 alkali
Where does fixer fall on the pH chart? It is acidic and falls within the 4.0 - 5.0 range.
T/F - Fixer CLEARS THE IMAGE by removing all remaining silver halide from emulsion. TRUE.
Fixing time = ___x clearing time. Fixing time = 2x clearing time.
What step in 4 cycle process is hardening of film done? Within FIXING step.
Fixer has 2 major ingredients: solvent (water as dilutant) and _________________. Ammonium thiosulfate (used today) or Hypo (sodium thiosulfate).
Name some consequences of exhausted fixer: Partially cleared filmInadequate dryingSurface damage on filmLower archival value of film
During the 90 second processing process, FIXING takes ________ seconds 15 of 90 seconds.
A thinner emulsion takes (more or less) fixing time.A thicker film takes (more or less) fixing time. A thinner emulsion takes less fixing time.A thicker film takes more fixing time.
When agitation of fixer is increased, fixing time is INCREASED OR DECREASED? Decreased.
WASHING removes silver and ammonium halides and film turns what color (s)? Yellow-brown with sulfer stains.
What is HYPO RETENTION? ycombine with silver to form silver halide.
T/F - HYPO RETENTION is the most common cause of poor film archival quality. TRUE.
The DRYING process takes ? seconds of 90 seconds. Drying takes 25 of 90 seconds.
T/F - DRYING blows warm air over only one surface of film. FALSE. Drying blows warm air over BOTH surfaces of film.
During the DRYING process, what removes surface water? The squeegee rollers remove surface water.
Where is the TURN-AROUND-ASSEMBLY in processing tank? AT THE BOTTOM OF TANK.
Where is the COSS-OVER ASSEMBLY in the processing tank? AT THE TOP OF TANK.
How many cross-over tanks are there? TWO (2); from developer to fixer & from fixer to washer.
Cross-over tanks (2) need to be washed & dried daily, weekly or monthly? Daily.
T/F - The DRIER system has transport rollers with tubes that blow hot air onto film. TRUE:)
The RECIRCULATION system does NOT provide heating for developer. FALSE. It sure does provide HEATING of developer. Consistent temp of developer is critical.
How does the developer COOL DOWN? It circulates through the cold water tank (tubing) to cool the developer.
FIXER RECIRCULATION: This unit pulls ? from fixer. The fixer recirculation unit pulls SILVER from fixer.
Is WASH water recirculated? No. It is a constant supply of cool tap water.
How does wash water get warmed? Through developer circulation heater.
What is the principle contributor of agitation in the(developer and fixer solutions)? The recirculation system.
Is developer temperature important? YES - it is very critical.
Where is the reirculating piping of cool water that cools that cools developer? At top or bottom of tank? At BOTTOM of tank.
The purpose of this is to maintain consistent developer or fixer activity. Replenishment System: 2 types - developer and fixer.
Tank drainage is located where within tank? At bottom of tank.
There are 2 types of silver recovery systems, they are: Electrolysis and Metallic Replacement.
Name some functions of the cassette: a) it holds intensifying screen.b) it protects screen from damage.c) it keeps light from fogging film.d) it allows for close film-screen contact.e) it keep dust and dirt from screen.
Cassette Construction: NAME WHETHER THE FOLLOWING IS ON THE FRONT OR BACK OF CASSETTE.A) METAL W/LEAD FOIL TO MINIMIZE BACKSCATTER-B) RECESS SLIDING APERTURE FOR ID-C) METAL OR CARBON FIBER FOR LESS RAD. ABSORPTION-D) UNIFORM THICKNESS WITHOUT IRREGULARIT A) METAL W/LEAD FOIL TO MINIMIZE BACKSCATTER-back.B) RECESS SLIDING APERTURE FOR ID-back.C) METAL OR CARBON FIBER FOR LESS RAD. ABSORPTION-front.D) UNIFORM THICKNESS WITHOUT IRREGULARITIES-front.
There are 4 types of cassettes: Single screen double screengridded cassettecurved cassette (panorex)
Which of 4 types of cassettes is used for mammography? Single screen - which uses a single emulsion film.
Is there silver (to be recovered) in laser paper? No.
Is there silver (to be recovered) in laser paper? No.
Is there silver (to be recovered) in laser paper? No.
Created by: raymondafradella on 2008-10-30



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