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WVSOM - Biochem

Lipoproteins

QuestionAnswer
What kind of diet decreases LDL Levels Low cholesterol diets
High HDL levels are a ______________ risk factor for coronary heart disease. negative
What decreases HDL levels? smoking
What increases HDL levels exercise
Serum trigylceride levels are proportional to ___________ VLDL levels in a fasted condition
APO C-II cofactor activator of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
APO-E ligand for binding of several lipoproteins to the LDL receptor
Lp(a) used to predict coronary heart disease
3 Lipoprotein subclasses VLDL-C LDL-C HDL-C
chylomicrons transport dietary lipids to where they need to go
Chylomicrons only occur in the __________ state. fed
Chylomicrons synthesis occurs outside the liver in the intestinal epithelial cells
Very Low Density Lipoproteins carry hepatically synthesized TG to skeletal muscles and adipose cells
VLDL are made in the _____________. Liver
HDL donates ______ to VLDL to activate ___________. Apo CII; LPL
Lipoprotein synthesis induced by insulin
VLDL that leaves the liver was synthesized in the liver or delivered to teh liver from teh diet by chylomicron remnants
VLDL becomes IDL
IDL becomes LDL
IDL Intermediate Density Lipoprotein
IDL are turned to LDL in the __________ liver
IDL is recognized in the liver by hepatic LDL receptors
Conversion of IDL to LDL (3) 1. Core TG are removed from IDL increasing density 2. Cholesterol esters are transferred from HDL to IDL (uses LCAT) 3. TG are transferred from IDL to HDL to make it more dense LDL
LDL delievers cholesterol to ____________ extra hepatic cells
LDL comes from some comes from the VLDL and some comes from the HDL addition of cholesterol ester to the IDL as they become LDL
Uptake of LDL by extra-hepatic cells occurs via LDL receptors on the cell's surfaces
De-esterified cholestol delevered by LDL inhibits synthesis of HMG-CoA reductase
Inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase results in extra-hepatic cholesterol synthesis
LDL utilization in extra-hepatic cells some is esterified by ACAT
Deficits in extra hepatic LDL receptors limit extra-hepatic LDL uptake
LDL delivers cholesterol to _____________. extra-hepatic cells
IDL density in comparison VLDL < IDL < LDL
de-esterified cholesterol leads to _________ down regulation of the genes for LDL receptor synthesis
Down regulation of LDL receptor synthesis allows _______________ entry into the cell of only the amount of cholesterol needed
LRP LDL receptor-related protein
LRP function recognizes a wider range of lipoproteins adn lipoprotein fragments than does teh LDL receptor
LRP differs from LDL receptor because __________ it is not affected by cellular cholesterol levels
LRP may help ____________ decrease serum lipoprotein levels
Familial Hypercholestemia genetically defective LDL receptors occur and LDL levels become extremely high
95% of elevated LDL levels caused by _______ multifactorial hypercholesterolemia due to a combination of dietary, behavioral, and genetic factors
Elevated HDL levels correspond with a decrease risk of coronary heart disease
Where are HDL synthesized? Liver
Roles of HDL (3) HDL activate Lipoprotein Lipase Pick up cholesterol resulting from cell membrane degradation Retrun some cholesterol directly to the liver
How to control serum LDL levels limiting dietary cholesterol and saturated and trans fatty acids; depends on genetic make up
Pharmachological treatment of lowering LDL statin drugs inhibit HMG CoA reductase Bile and cholesterol sequestering drugs decrease bile acid reabsorption and dietyar cholesterol absorption
Lipoprotein (a) Lp(a) thought to be a marker or predictor for cardiovascular disease
Lp (a) found to be elevated ___________ post-MI
Lp(a) promotes ________ when oxidized atherosclerotic plaque formation
New research findings indicate (2) 1. lipoproteins themselves are the risk factor 2. HDL and LDL are not each a specific Lipoprotein but rather occur in sub types
Sub-types of lipoproteins are associated with amounts of risk of coronary heart disease
Created by: Todd Jamrose Todd Jamrose on 2008-10-20



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