|Endothermic reaction ||A reaction that requires energy input|
|Exothermic reaction ||A reaction that gives off energy|
|Enzymes (4 Characteristics) ||-Lower activation energy of a reaction.
-Increase the rate of the reaction.
-Do not affect the overall (delta)G or (delta)H of the reaction
-Are not changed or consumed in the course of the reaction|
|Apoenzymes ||Enzymes without their cofactors|
|Holoenzymes ||Enzymes that contain their cofactors|
|Allosteric Enzymes ||An enzymes that has multiple binding sites. The active site is present, as well as at least one other site that can regulate the availability of the active site|
|Allosteric activators ||An activator will result in a shift that makes the active site more available for binding to the substrate|
|Allosteric inhibitors ||An inhibitor will result in a shift that makes the active site less available for binding to the substrate.|
|Feedback Inhibition ||In feedback inhibition, the product may bind to an enzyme or enzymes that acted earlier in its biosynthetic pathway, thereby making the enzyme unavailable for other substrate to use.|
[How can it be overcome?] ||An enzyme inhibitor that binds to the active site, thus competing with substrate.
[It can be overcome by adding more substrate]
[How is it overcome?] ||An enzyme inhibitor that binds to an allosteric site instead of the active site, which induces a change in enzyme conformation.
[Cannot be overcome by adding more substrate. Can't be overcome at all]|
|Irreversible Inhibition ||An enzyme inhibitor that binds to the active site and makes it permanently unavailable.|
|Zymogen/Proenzymes ||An inactive enzyme precursor.|