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cset multiple subjec

subset 3 - human development

egocentrism piaget's their of viewing the world from one reference point (own perspective) notable in the preoperational stage of cognitive development (2-7 years old)
piagets stages of cognitive developmen birth-2: sensorimotor; 2-7: preoperational; 7-11 concrete operations; 11+ formal operations
concrete operations logical operations can be applied to real problems; however, complex deductions and abstract thinking are not possible until formal operations
convention level of morality kohlberg's stages of moral development. 10-13 years old: concerned about opinion of peers desire to win their acceptance
preconventional level of morality 4-10 rules are black and white children obey because adults tell them to
scaffolding vygotsky: temporary support system for children until they are able to perform on their own
aggression albert bandura theory of aggresion: children who observe aggressive acts are likely to imtate aggression
effects of excessive television behavioral issues and stereotypes instilled
types of play - 4 1. constructive play= use of makign objects into something; 2. functional play = repeating simple muscular movements; 3. pretend play: fantasy, drama, imaginative; 4. games with rules play
attachment 1. anxious resistant; 2. secure; 3. disorganized-disoriented; 4. anxious avoidant
peer positive relationships belongingness, overcome egocentrism, share interests, practice conflict resolution, provide emotional and social supports
anorexia versus bulimia personality traits anorexia: impulsive; bulimia: perfectionist
learning disability discrepancy between measured intelligence and classroom performance; interferes with overall academic performance, daily living, stress can magnify the disability
emotional intelligence understand perspective, listen, mature cognitive emotional feelings, motivated to share and cooperate with other children
Piaget's Cognitive Development Stages (SPCF) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, formal
sensorimotor birth-2 years, infancy through toddler, egocentric, understands through physical actions
preoperational 2-7, early childhood: (2-4) egocentric, casual reasoning, centration, covab = 1000 words; preoperational (5-7): understands different perspectives, insuitive reasoning and representational thought, vocab = 20000
concrete operations 7-11, middle childhood classification skills, understands conservation, inductive reasoning, seriation, transitive reference, metacognitive abilities
formal operations 12-18; adolesence: abstract reasoning, hypothetical-deductive reasoning, higher level of moral reasoning, no longer folllows external rules imposed by others.
jean piaget swiss psychologist, theory of stages of cognitive development: central to how educators understand how children think, feel, and respond to the world
cognitive development innate ability to adapt to the environment and that development as a result of the child's experience with the physical world, social experiences and physical maturation
conservation conceptual tool allowing a child to recognize when altering the appearance of an object does not change its basic properties
assimilation incorporate new information with existing schemes in order to form a new cognitive structure
accommodation take exissting schemes and adjust them to fit their experiences
piaget's cognitive learning process all thinking begins at a balanced mental state, a stage of equilibrium --> child received new information --> either assimilates or accomodates --> new thought (schema) is formed
4 assumptions of Piaget's stages of CD 1) children are organically inspired to think, learn, and comprehend; 2) children see the world differently than adults; 3) children knowledge is ordered into mental structures called scheme; 4) all learning consists of assimilation and accomodation
educational implications to piaget's theories 1. provides an alternative to behavior theorists belief children are passive learners; 2. quantified the conceptual-learning process-predictable and orderly developmental accomplishments; 3. a childs mind seeks equilibrium; 4. avoid inappropriate mat.
animism belief that nonliving objects have lifelike qualities
casual reasoning "casuality" children believe that their thoughts can cause actions whether or not the two experiences have casual relationships.
centration tendency to focus on only one piece of information at a time while disregarding all others
irreversibility cannot understand that an operation moves in ore than one direcrtion, cannot understand that the original state can be recovered
metacognition awareness about one's knowledge; helps children plan their own problem-solving strategies
object permanence recognition that objects an events continue to exist when they are not visible
reasoning (HIT) hypothetical-deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, transductive reasoning
transductive reasoning mentally connects specific experiences whether or not there is a logical, casual relationship
inductive reasoning drawing conclusions from specific examples to make general conclusion (even if inaccurate)
hypothetical-deductive reasoning formulating a specific hypothesis from any given general theory
schema form mental represenations of perception, ideas, actions to help understand experienceds
seriation ability to arrange object in logical progression
symbolic function users words/images to form mental representations. remembers objects without objects being phsycially present
transitive inference ability to draw conclusions about a relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship to a third object
morality internalized set of subjective rules influencing the feelings, thoughts, and behavior of an individual in deciding right from wrong
piaget and moral devleopment morality of constraint (4-7 yrs): heteronomous- moral world through the eyes of justic and rules unchangeable; morality of cooperation (autonomous) ages 10; understand rules are made of ppl and are variables when deciding right from wrong
kohlberg and moral development level 1: preconventional: obeying because adults tell them to, judgement made strictly on consequence; level 2: conventional (10-13)-concerned about the opinions of their peers , want to please others
level 3 of kohlberg's moral development postconventional (13+): morality judged in terms of abstract principles not by existing rules that govern society
def. of language communication system of words, symbols, representation of action, objects and feelings
language development through language development a child constructs cognitive and emotional meaning
vygotsky on language development believed thought development is determined by language, not jut an expression of knowledge but a powerful tool in shaping thought
noam chomsky on language development learning is innate and children are prewired to learn language. infants have LAD (language acquisition device) built in neurologically.
infant 0-12 years early vocalizaton spontaneous sounds, babbling
toddler 12-18 months: first words usually familiar simple monosyllabic; 18-24 telegraphic speech, simple two word sentences
early childhood 3-4 years old: learns 8-9 words dail, vocab 1000 words, uses plural/possessive/-ing, begins to private speech; 5-7 years old "why", understands metaphors 5-7 declarative word sentences, 2500 vocab
intelligence collecction of abilities that allow children to learn, think, experience, adapt; iq: score on an intelligence test: is not a predictor of socioeconomic success but may be of academic achievement
stanford-binet intelligence test cognitive development, verbal, nonbverbal, quantitative, memory; useful to diagnose developmental disabilities and special educaition interventions
wechsler verbal and performance, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, speech; pinpoints strengths and weaknesses
howard gardner multiple intelligence linguistic-verbal, mathematical-logica, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
sternberg's triarchic analytical, creative, and practical
classic conditioning learning process when 2 stimulus are repeatedly paired; response that is at first elicited by the second stimuli, eventually response will be ellicited by the first stimulus alone.
operant conditioning individual behavior is modified by its antecdents and consequences
erikson's psychosocial theory basic trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and double, initiative versus guilt, industrusy versus inferiority; identity versus role confusion
vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory culture is the prime determinant of cognitive development
bandura's social learning theory behvior is learned through the environment through a process of observational learning
stage 1 eriksons trust vs. mistrust
stage 2 eriksons autonomy versus shame and doubt
stage 3 eriksons initiative verus guilt
stage 4 eriksons industry versus inferiority
stage 5 eriksins identity versus role confusion
mary ainsworth attachment infant-parent secure, anxious-resistant, anxious-avoidant, disorganized/disoriented
Created by: msanpedro54 on 2014-04-23

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