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FSHN 350- Exam 4

FSHN 350- Quiz 3

how many amino acids in nature/how many to make proteins 140/20
conditionally essential AA example PKU patients need tyrosine (can't convert phe)
protein digestion in the stomach gastrin stimulates HCl release; HCl activates pepsin
inactive form of an enzyme is called zymogen
protein digestion in small intestine CCK stimulates release of proteases
proteases (3) trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases (a and b)
peptide absorption di and tri peptides; PEPT1 (H+/peptide cotransporter); converted to AA once inside enterocyte
5 fates of amino acids non-protein compounds that contain N; body proteins like enzymes; fat from carbon skeletons; glucose production; energy from carbon skeleton
amino acid pool 150g circulating in blood plasma and cytosol of cells
glutathione synthesized from glycine, cysteine, and glutamate; antioxidant; reduced form GSH is ~10x higher than oxidized form GSSG
carnitine synthesized from lysine; used for LGFA transport
creatine replenishes ATP during short/hard bouts of exercise
choline synthesized from serene; converts homocysteine to methionine (linked to CVD)
transamination transfer of an amino acids group form one AA to an alpha meta acid (AA skeleton)
transamination of alanine to pyruvate enzyme alanine amino transferase
transamination of aspartate to oxaloacetate enzyme aspartate amino transferase
deamination removal of amino group to make alpha keto acid and ammonia
threonine->alpha keto butyrate enzyme threonine dehydratase
two AA that are only ketogenic leucine and lysine
ketogenic misnomer not all made into ketones; just acetyl coA for TCA cycle OR ketones
branched chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, valine; reduce muscle soreness (readily oxidized in skeletal muscle)
two ways to determine nitrogen balance measure excretion in urine/feces; measure protein intake (16% nitrogen)
Kwashiorkor inadequate protein w/ sufficient kcal
Marasmus severe deficiency in overall kcals
Sarcopenia loss of ~1/2% per year of muscle b/w ages 30-50; 1-2% after age 50
risks of high protein diets renal damage if have impaired renal function; dehydration; can still gain weight from carbon
Minnesota Starvation Experiment physical and mental effects of starvation; 1800 kcal per day whilst burning 3000 kcal per day
alcohol isn't ___, it's ____ alcohol isn't digested, it's metabolized
where is alcohol absorbed? some stomach; mostly small intestine
where is alcohol metabolized? liver; the rest circulates throughout the body
where is MEOS used? the brain; may be associated w/ TIQs and addiction
factors that affect BAC size, time, fullness, male/female *less ADH, drinking frequency, East Asians/American Indians *less ALDH
orders of parts of the brain alcohol affects cortex, forebrain, cerebellum, brain stem
what causes hangovers? build-up of acetaldehyde and acetate
negative metabolic effects of alcohol slows down glycolysis, beta oxidation, TCA cycle; increased lactate production
three stages of alcoholic fatty liver disease fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis
cirrhosis last stage of alcoholic fatty liver disease; liver cells die and are replaced w/ scar tissue
consequences of chronic alcohol abuse gastritis/pancreatitis/GERD; malnutrition, cancer (more common in men)
pathophysiology of alcohol dependence not well understood; affects neurotransmitters; may be connected to gene variants of ADH and ALDH
Disulfiram (antabuse) prevents elimination of acetaldehyde to cause hangovers
Naltrexone blocks opoid receptors (thus no endorphins from them)
Acomprosate/Campral blocks glutamate actions (which is hyperactive in post-withdrawl phase)
French Paradox higher butter, smoking, alcohol in France but less CVD
J-shaped curve abstainer and heavy drinkers have higher death rates than moderate drinkers
polyphenols aromatic rings w/ hydroxyl groups; found in alcholo
four classes of polyphenols phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, lignans
polyphenols and wine 10x more in red than white wine
polyphenol health benefits antioxidant, lower LDL, anti-inflammatory, increase HDL, vasodilation, inhibit tumor growth
resveratrol extends lifespan in yeast; exercise performance, cancer reduction, antidiabetic, reduced atherosclerosis, reduced alzheimer's in animal models
Sirtris paid $720 million for enzyme that mediates effects of resveratrol
Created by: melaniebeale on 2014-04-14

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