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Enlightenment

1700s People

TermDefinition
Adam Smith "The Wealth of Nations" argues gov't should stay out of buisnesses. laissez-faire "government hands-off economy" MERCANTILISM
Francis Bacon inductive method for scientific experimentation "knowledge is power"
Rene Descartes deductive method "I think therefore i am". thinking substance (within the mind) and extended substance (objective world, everything outside the mind)
Nicolaus Copernicus challenged geocentric view and presented a heliocentric view.
Galileo Galelei Italian Renaissance into Enlightenment. astronomical observations proved the earth not the center of the universe
Issac Newton Kepler's laws of planetary motion and Galileo's laws of inertia. ideas of gravity
Johannes Kepler 3 laws of planetary motion and proved the orbits of planets are ellipses
Voltaire "Candide" criticized the flaws of society. against censorship and organised religion
Baron de Montesquieu "The Spirit of Laws" a system of checks and balances
Mary Wollstonecraft British writer and early feminist "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
William Harvey "On the movement of the Heart and Blood." the circulation of the blood through the veins and arteries
Copernicus heliocentric theory of a sun-centered solar system
Leeuwenhoek microscope to see sperm, blood, and bacteria
Dennis Diderot Encyclopedia
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 HOW CAN SOCIETY PREVENT CHAOS AND VIOLENCE? "Life is nasty, brutish and short" absolute monarchy, give up rights for protection, state prevents killing for property (ppl compete for), only one religion
John Locke 1632-1704 HOW CAN GOV'T PROTECT A CITIZEN+ POSSESSIONS? "people are born good and corrupted by society" tabula rassa, natural rights life, liberty, and property, give up rights for protection the gov't fails the ppl change it. religious tol., rep. monarchy.
Jean Jacques Rousseau HOW CAN SOCIETY COMBAT INEQUALITY? ppl unequal in ability. state of nature noble. social cont. between the ppl, rights given up to general will. property bad. dictatorship of general will.
philosophes group of thinkers and writers with enlightened ideas, exposed social problems and provide reforms
Key ideas Reason, nature laws and nature, happiness, progress, liberty (a natural right), toleration of religion
Created by: 100001411020449