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Psych Fridlund

PSYCH FINAL FRIDLUUUUND

QuestionAnswer
geons and "impossible figures" -geons are the basic building blocks of all objects we recognize (we first recognize objects by recognizing their component geons)
-impossible figures are made by non-geon components
the stroop effect and automatization -tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink
change blindness -the failure to detect changes in parts of a scene (while a movie is playing if they change what is on the people's plates you probably wont notice)
attentional blink -during a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else (you don't necessarily blink your eyes, but you "blink" your attention)
algorithms and heuristics -algorithm- a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis
-heuristics- strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess (i.e. to choose oldest child, you choose the tallest)
representativeness heuristic -the assumption that an item that resembles members of some category is probably also in that category
base-rate information -how common two categories are
-often overlooked when people apply the representativeness heuristic
availability heuristic -the tendency to assume that if we easily think of examples of a category, then that category must be common
-after a plane crash, people think flying is unsafe because it is very memorable
overconfidence -on hard problems, people are generally overconfident that their answers are correct (i.e. they have a correct range that the nile river is in between)
-on easy problems, they are often underconfident
confirmation bias -the tendency to accept a hypothesis and then look for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities
framing bias and "spin" -framing bias- when the wording of a problem leads us to a decision
-"spin"- spinning facts makes people reframe their ideas towards a certain viewpoint
mental rotation and map image-scanning studies -when asked if two objects are the same (just rotated) or different, people make the judgements by imagining one of the forms spinning until the positions match
-subjects memorize map and had to "scan" from one point to another and judge distance
prototype theory of meaning -a mode of categorization where some members of a category are more central than other (this dog is more "dog-like" than the others) (this fruit is more "fruit-like" than the others)
spreading activation -a method for searching networks.. activation thought and then you come to your final search by associating similar things?
natural selection -the differential reproductive success of individuals within a population because of hereditary differences among them
-organisms with favorable characteristics reproduce more
requirements for natural selection -variability-differences among organisms/traits
-selection pressures
-inheritance mechanism-use-inheritance (now we know it is genetics)
vestigial structures and importance to darwin -structures that are "left-over" from previous stages in evolution (pelvis bones in whales/snakes, wings in flightless birds, human appendix, etc)
taxis -movement toward or against a simple stimulus
-phototaxis (light)
-chemotaxis (chemicals)
-geotaxis (geographic locations)
fixed action patterns (model action patterns) and releasing stimuli -an action that runs to completion and then may reset (example: the bird whose egg was taken, scooped it away always... when it was taken it would scoop air all the way back)
-triggered by "releasers"
-yawning in humans
-honeybee dance
imprinting and critical (sensitive) periods -triggered in critical periods (generally newborns/young)
-if a male robin doesn't hear the song of a mature robin during the critical period, it will not be imprinted and when he goes through puberty he will not sing like a mature robin
-not for humans
neoteny -holding on to juvenile traits as an adult
-neoteny less in chimpanzees where their skull structure varies quite a bit from baby to adult
vervet monkeys and calls -vervet monkeys are chatterboxes and have a proto-language
-can communicate if an eagle is overhead they go under tree, if snake is near they go up tree, etc
personal vs inclusive fitness -personal fitness- direct reproductive prowess
-inclusive fitness- assistance of kin's reproduction, leads to cooperative behavior
--"altruism"- genetic self-interested (like the turkeys who help their brothers attract a mate)
equity theories or exchange -social relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goods and services
-wealthy attractive people are more demanding in who they want a relationship with
sexual dimorphism -the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species
-cause of means of structural or behavioral competition
kinsey survey -kinsey scale (0-6) from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual.
-not binary anymore, reconceptualized sexual orientation
-46% males "reacted" sexually to both sexes
-37% males had at least 1 homosexual experience
-7% of females bisexual
female choice in mating -cryptic- female ovum rejects certain sperm.. genetic key doesn't match on cell membranes
-overt (incitement)- female choice.. female "i choose you"
male displays resulting from sexual selection -rams butt heads
-kangaroos box
-birds sing songs and flash their feathers, etc
sexual selection -a type of natural selection in which members of one sex compete for reproductive access to members of the other sex
research on human imprinting -there does not seem to be any sort of imprinting stage for humans
types of mating systems -monogamy- pair-bonding
-polygamy- one animal has many mates
--polyandry- one female mates w/ many males
--polygyny- one male mates w/ many females
-promiscuity- everyone mates w/ everyone
-most mating systems are slight polygyny
sexual orientation -heterosexuality (90%+ of population)
-gay males (~4% of population)
-lesbian females (~2% of population)
-bisexual male and females
possible determinants of sexual orientation -females: higher exposure to prenatal androgens
--right hand 2 :4 finger lengths are lower (more like those of straight men)
males: may be an X-linked trait that promotes fertility in females
--older biological brother raises homosexual probability 33
"correlated variations" with sexual orientation -2 :4 finger ratios (gay people have reversed ratios to straight counterparts)
-gay people 50% likelier to be left-handed
-gay men likelier to have counter-clockwise hair pattern
evolutionary explanations of altruism -altruism- selfless concern for others. altruism makes sense for brothers to help each other, etc, so that their genes are passed along
rationale for sexual reproduction -hedge against environmental change
-no current reason for humans..
-protection against pathogens (red queen hypothesis)
evolutionary explanation of sex roles -in most animal kingdom, females are much bigger than males
-one exception is in species w/ large brains (males compete for females)
-females make larger parental investment per gamete
james-lange theory of emotion -interpretation of a stimulus evokes autonomic changes and sometimes muscle actions. perception of those changes is the feeling aspect of your emotion
cognitive (schachter-singer) theory of emotion -the intensity of the physiological state -- the degree of sympathetic nervous system arousal -- determines the intensity of the emotion, but a cognitive appraisal of the situation identifies the type of emotion
how the polygraph works -records indications of sympathetic nervous system arousal such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and electrical conduction of the skin
-lie detector test
"positive psychology" -the study of the features that enrich life, such as happiness, hope, creativity, courage, spirituality, and responsibility
effects of wealth on well-being -on average, low income people report feeling happy almost as frequently as high income people
-hard to be poor and sick and happy at the same time
-people in richer countries generally rate themselves happier than those in poorer countries
effects of crying -no demonstrable health benefits
-crying does not relieve tension, in fact people who cried are more likely to be depressed later on
epigenetic landscape (conrad waddington) -canals of some traits, such as height
--traits such as height and other highly genetic traits are deeply canalized
-traits such as outgoingness are more moldable, they are shallowly canalized
"nature-nurture" problem -is a trait due to heredity (nature) or the environment (nurture)?
-whether a trait is genetically influenced does not imply that it is fixed (non-plastic)
epigenetics -"governing" genetics
-potentially heritable information not contained in the NA sequences of the genome
-markers may change with age
identical vs fraternal twins -identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg and have identical genes (monozygotic)
-fraternal twins develop from two eggs and share half their genes, like any siblings (dizygotic)
effects of drinking and smoking during pregnancy -if mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy, infant may develop fetal alcohol syndrome
--stunted growth of head and body, malformations of the face, heart, and ears, nervous system damage, mental retardation, etc
capabilities of newborns -time born babies have "core knowledge" about objects and physics of objects
-can distinguish human faces from all other objects
-can imitate
cross-sectional vs longitudinal studies -a cross-sectional study compares groups of individuals of different ages at the same time
-in a longitudinal study one group of subjects is studied repeatedly as the members grow older
cohort effects -a cohort is a group of people born at a particular time or a group of people who enter an organization at a particular time
-cohort effects are the effects that this has on that group of people
schemas (piaget) -a schema is an organized way of interacting with objects
-i.e. infants have a grasping schema and a sucking schema
-piaget thought children had 4 major stages of development
--sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
assimilation -applying an old schema to new objects or problems
-i.e. a child who observes that animals move on their own may believe that the sun and move, which also seem to move, must also be alive
accommodation -modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem
-i.e. a child learns that "only living things move on their own" is a rule with exceptions that the sun and moon are not alive
object permanence and how it's measured -object permanence is the idea that objects continue to exist even when we do not see or hear them
-place toy in front of infant, he'll grab it
-place toy in front of infant with clear glass, he'll move glass and grab it
-if child cant see it, wont gra
conservation of number, volume, mass -children fail to understand that objects conserve such properties as number, length, volume, area, and mass after changes in the shape or arrangement of the objects
-i.e. pour water into a taller, thinner glass, child thinks taller glass has more water
erikson's social development model (general concept, not specific stages) -divided human life span into eight stages
-at each stage, people have specific tasks to master, and each stage generates its own social and emotional conflicts
-mistakes at one stage may carry over and have unfortunate consequences at later stages
key issues in adolescence, midlife, and old age -adolescent- identity versus role confusion
-midlife-generativity versus stagnation
-old age- ego integrity versus dispair
parenting styles and effects -authoritative- parents have high standards and control, warm and responsive to child's communication
-authoritarian- firm controls, emotionally distant
-permissive- warm+loving, but undemanding
-indifferent/uninvolved- spend little time, basic needs
stockholme syndrome -a phenomenon where hostages have positive feelings toward their captors that appear irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims
-mistake lack of abuse from captors as an act of kindness
effects of abuse on attachment and resilience -abuse by caretaker leads to greater attachment
-children tend to cling to abusive parents
effects of divorce on children -regression (clinginess, thumb-sucking, bed-wetting) in young
-reunion fantasies, headaches/stomaches, guilt about divorce, anger/powerlessness, labeling parents as "good" vs "bad"
-depression, acting out, suicidal ideation, withdrawl, pseudo-independen
primacy effects on social impressions -the primacy effect is the fact that the first information we learn about someone influences us more than later information does
-first impression is lasting
methods of assessing prejudice -implicit association test (IAT)- measures reactions to combinations of categories, such as flowers and pleasant
results of implicit association test -in white college students
--most responded to the combos black/unpleasant and white/pleasant, even though they claimed to haqve no racial prejudice
-implicit preference of white people toward other whites
internal vs external attributions -internal attributions- explanations based on someone's individual characteristics, such as attitudes, personality traits, or abilities
-external attributions- explanations based on the situation, including events that presumably influence nearly everyon
internal vs external attributions examples -internal- walked to work today "because you like the exercise"
-external- walked to work today "because your car wouldn't start"
"fundamental attribution error" and culture -to make internal attributions for people's behavior when we see evidence for an external influence on behavior
-a tendency to assume a strong similarity between someone's current actions and his or her dispositions
actor-observer effect -people are more likely to make internal attributions for other people's behavior and more likely to make external attributions for their own
-you are an "actor" when you try to explain your own behavior and an "observer" when you explain someone elses
culture differences in attribution -people of western cultures rely more on internal attributions in situations (fish is leading the other fish)
-people in China and other asian countries tend to make more external attributions (other fish are chasing the fish)
self-serving attributional bias -attributions that we adopt to maximize credit for success and minimize blame for failure
-good grade result of hard work and intelligence
-bad grade result of unfair test
self-handicapping strategies -when people intentionally put themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for failure
-if you think you are going to do bad on a test, you go to a party the night before so now you can blame your low score on your lack of sleep
factors affecting persuasiveness of messages -central route- when people take adecision seriously, they evaluate the evidence and logic behind each message
-peripheral- when people listen to a message on an unimportant topic they attend to more superficial factors such as appearance/reputation
salesmanship techniques
"foot-in-the-door"
"door-in-the-face"
"bait-and-switch"
"that's-not-all" -foot in door- start w/ modest request, follow with a larger request
-door in face- start w/ large request, increase chance second smaller request will be agreed
-bait and switch- first offer extremely favorable deal, then make additional demands
"that's-not-all" -someone makes an offer and then improves the offer before you have a chance to reply
cognitive dissonance -a state of unpleasant tension that people experience when they hold contradictory attitudes or when their behavior contradicts their stated attitudes, especially if the inconsistency distresses them
cognitive dissonance example -experience negative feeling (dissonance)
-need to reduce that negative feeling
--attitude want to do well on final, behavior party/play beer pong
--to reduce dissonance: change behavior, change attitude, or adopt new attitude
factors promoting friendship -proximity and familiarity
-physical attractiveness
-similarity
biology and physical attractiveness -"normal" is attractive
-healthy and fertile people are more likely to be "attractive"
-many illnesses decrease people's attractiveness
characteristics of successful marriages -not living together before marriage
-no signs of contempt (rolling eyes or sarcasm) especially in early stages of marriage
asch's conformity studies -showed group a model bar, asked which bar was same length
-actual participant was only 1 person in group, second to last
-37/50 participants conformed to the majority at least once, 14 conformed on most of the trials
-people conform a lot
diffusion of responsibility -if there is a chain of command, people feel less responsible for their actions
-person taking orders "is just taking orders"
-person giving orders "is just giving orders", not actually doing the dirty work
social loafing -the phenomenon of people making less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone
group polarization -if nearly all the people who compose a group lean in the same direction on a particular issue, then a group discussion will move the group as a whole even further in that direction
groupthink -an extreme form of group polarization
-when the members of a group suppress their doubts about a group's decision for fear of making a bad impression or disrupting group harmony
basic setup of prisoner's dilemma and use -you and a friend charged for a crime
-best outcome is both stay quiet
-but will the other person confess?
milgram obedience study & results -people were put in front of a zapping machine that they were told would zap someone if the person answered a question wrong
-of 40 participants, 25 delivered shocks all the way to 450 volts
-people from all walks of life obeyed the experimenter's order
stanford prison experiment - basic results -24 people, half guards half prisoners
-randomly chose who went into each group
-the guards treated the prisoner's horribly, making them do awful things
-experiment was cut short after 6 days
-guards forced prisoners to do unusual things
factors promoting obedience -diffusion of responsibility
-situational
kohlberg's view of moral development (general principle only) -adaptation of piaget's theory
-moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has 6 identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor
-pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional stag
problems with kohlberg's view -emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other values
-overly androcentric
-not culturally neutral
ways to reduce prejudice -subordinate (cooperative) goals
-once people are on the same team trying to accomplish goals that benefit both parties, they will be nicer to each other
structured personality testing -MMPI
-ask people questions and based on their answers sort them into different personality categories
MMPI -minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
-consists of true-false questions intended to measure certain personality dimensions and clinical conditions
-empirically devised (based on evidence rather than theory)
type A behavior pattern -chronic sense of time urgency
-competitive achieving
-sense of personal mission
-self-imposed deadlines
-high pace in mental/physical activities
-aggression and hostility
-often more successful
cattell's personality research -16 personality factors (16 PF test)
-if people used words as synonyms, his factor analysis got rid of redundancies, ended up w/ 16 words
rorschach inkblot procedure -show people a big blog of ink... ask them what they saw
-depending on what they saw it said something about their personality
projective testing w/ rationale -draw-a-person, draw-a-tree..
-roschach inkblots
-TAT
TAT -thematic apperception test
-when shown a picture, come up with a story of what happened before, during, and after the picture
-depending on the story you told, it tells something about your personality
trait theories - eysenck -eysenck-2 personality dimensions
--extraversion vs introversion
--neuroticism (emotionally reactive) vs stability
--placed them on a cross plane (graph)
trait theories - big five -norman's big five
-CANOE/OCEAN
-conscientiousness
-agreeableness
-neuroticism
-openness to experience
-extroversion
psychodynamic personality theories -a theory that relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including the unconscious ones
-forces that we do not understand push us and pull us
psychoanalysis -freud's method of explaining and dealing with personality based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces
-freud's tool to understanding the unconscious
-bring memories from the unconscious to the conscious producing catharsis to overcome
catharsis -a release of pent-up emotional tension
-talking is healing
the unconscious the repository of memories, emotions, and thoughts, many of them illogical, that affect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them
-traumatic experiences and unresolved childhood conflicts force thoughts and emotions into the unconscious
oedipus complex -according to freud, during childhood every boy goes through this
-when he develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression toward his father
-he had no evidence...
stages of psychosexual development -oral stage (sucking, swallowing, biting)
-anal stage (expelling feces, retaining feces)
-phallic stage (touching penis or clitoris; oedipus complex)
-latent period (sexual interests suppressed)
-genital stage (sexual contact w/ other people)
components of personality (ego, id) -ego-both conscious and unconscious, operates on reality principle (rational, decision making)
-id-purely unconscious, operates on pleasure principle (operates on sexual and biological drives)
components of personality (superego) -superego- both conscious and unconscious, operates on ideals (memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from our parents and others)
-"nice little boys and girls don't do that"
defense mechanisms (know types) -the ego defends itself against anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts and impulses to the unconscious mind
-repression- motivated forgetting
-denial- refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety
defense mechanisms (know types) -rationalization- when people attempt to prove that their actions are rational and justifiable and thus worthy of approval
-displacement- lets people engage in behavior w/ less anxiety by diverting a behavior or thought away from its natural target towar
defense mechanisms (know types) -regression- a return to a more immature level of functioning
-projection- attributing one's own undesirable characteristics to other people
-reaction formation- present themselves as the opposite of what they really are to hide the unpleasant truth
defense mechanisms (know types) -sublimation- the transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable, even admirable, behaviors
overall evidence on validity of freud's psychoanalysis -not much evidence at all
-most of his observations are very speculative
jung's collective unconscious and archetypes -early member of freud's inner circle (neo-freudian)
-collective unconscious is present at birth and pertains to the cumulative experience of preceding generations
-archetypes- vague images that have always been part of the human experience
adler and "social interest" -early associate of freud but parted with him when freud overemphasized sex drive
-social interest- a sense of solidarity and identification with other people
--an interest in the welfare of society
--want to cooperate, not compete
tryon's behavior-genetics study -raised maze-bright and maze-dull rats
-after seven generations he breeded the best and worst maze rats with others of similar abilities
-the differences were clearly genetic
continuous vs stage theories -stage developmental process involves distinct stages which are characterized by qualitative differences in behavior
--piaget, erkson, freud, etc
-continuous development involves gradual and ongoing changes throughout the lifespan
personality and criminal profiling -assuming people who commit similar crimes have similar personalities or backgrounds
-research shows that criminal profiling is not very useful
heredity and personality -heredity can influence personality
-certain genes are linked to neuroticism (anxiety-proneness)
kinsey and klein scales -kinsey scale 0-6 (exclusively homo to exclusively hetero)
-klein scale looks not just at present behavior, but also previous (entire life span -- past, present, ideal)
signs and symptoms of common mental disorders -mood
--depression, bi-polar
-anxiety
--ocd, post-traumatic stress disorder
-mania
-anxiety
-OC
-A H
basics of treatment for depression, mania, anxiety, ocd, shizophrenia, adhd -depression- psychotherapy or medication, sometimes ECT shock therapy
-mania- medication only, inhibit pkc
-anxiety- addictive GABA reducing drugs, exposure therapy (systematic desensitization, relaxation therapy)
-ocd- seratonin medication
-adhd- dru
brain changes in shizophrenia, adhd -shizophrenia- high dopamine activity
-adhd- low levels of dopamine and norepinephrine
Created by: Jomarcus on 2012-12-07



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