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Persuasion (def) it is the art of reinforcing or changing beliefs, attitudes, values, or behaviors on a particular subject.
art = the flexible application of principles
what are the three modes of persuasion? logical, emotional, and ethical
greek for logical lambda
greek for emotional (psychological) pi
greek for ethical eta
what are the three types of prepositions? fact, value, and policy
what is a preposition? a statement about something
fact: statement that says something was, is, or will be the case
value: statement that says something was, is, or will be good or bad. (neither true nor false; subjective)
policy: statement that says a specific course of action should be adopted. (only future tense)
Issue Analysis: a clash between arguments stated in question form
evidence anything you're willing to believe
what are the four types of evidence? valid assumptions, facts, statistics, testimony
facts: any observable, verifiable, piece of datum
ways to test facts: is it current, is it consistent with others, are there any saying the opposite?
statistics: generalizations or comparisons expressed in numerical form
ways to test statistics: how current is it, what sample was conducted, who is the source?
testimony: written or oral opinions about something
ways to test testimonies: who is the source, how current is it, how biased is it, is it based on facts?
what are five types of reasoning? generalization, causation, analogy, sign, and categorical
argument by generalization: what is true of the example(s) is probably true of the entire set of examples w/in the same class.
ways to test generalization: how many examples did you use, how typical are the results, are there any negative examples?
argument by causation: a specific cause produces a specific effect
ways to test causation: is the cause strong enough to produce the effect, could there be some other causal factors, how consistent is the relationship b/t cause and effect?
argument by analogy: weakest form of reasoning; if two objects are similar in a certain situation, they probably will be similar in other situations
ways to test analogy: do the similarities outweigh the dissimilarities?
argument by sign: if certain symptoms suggest the presence of a particular condition
ways to test sign: are there enough signs, do these signs generally indicate that condition, are there a number of contradictory signs?
categorical argument: opposite of generalization; uses deductive reasoning; goes from general to specific; what is true of the entire category (generalization) will be true of any member in that category
ways to test categorical: does the condlusion follow logically from the premises?
fallacies of reasoning: begging the question, pseudoauthority, irrelevant appeals
begging the question: assuming the truth w/o proving it.
one type of begging the question: alleged certainty ("anyone with half a brain would know that!")
pseudoauthority: lying; making it up; made-up authority
irrelevant appeals: has nothing to do with the issue or anything you're talking about
whare are two types of irrelevant appeals? appeal to pity, appeal to fear
motivational proof AKA Pi
ways to use motivational proof: rewarded behavior, hierarchy of needs, group identification, self-image
credibility AKA Eta
credibility DEF: it is the amount of belief a person has in some person or thing such as an institution
what are the 6 dimensions of credibility? competency, trustworthiness, develop goodwill towards the audience, dynamism, identification, immediate behavior
competency: do you know what you're talking about? be knowledgeable of your subject; have qualified sources
trustworthiness: does the audience trust you? sound sincere, genuine
develop goodwill towards the audience: what will benefit the audience? use personal pronouns (we, us); be friendly, honest
dynamism: variety in delivery
identification: identify with your listeners; common goals, values, beliefs
immediate behavior: reduction of physical and psychological space b/t speaker and listener
Created by: kelseyrae