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Italian Food/Culture

Glossary Terms

philology study of language in written and historical sources
sign literal word, this changes (examples would include pictures, symbols, varying languages)
signifier reference to, way of referencing (synonym for sign)
signified the entity being referenced, the thing (does not change)
referent the entity being referenced, the thing (does not change), synonym for signified
metaphore say one thing and mean something else, description by means of comparison
(g)ravioli examples of semantic shift. in past was pronounced/spelled with a "g" b/c "grav"= heavy so pasta with filling, but over the centuries the "g" was lost
etymology the origin of the meaning; ex= awesome. "awe" + "some"=in awe of you, note: in Latin the etymology is the same for all Latin based languages but the meaning does change
semantic shifts words with similar sounds change in meaning over time. ex= gourmet(of the best quality, delicious) and gourmand (glutton)
GASTRONOMY creation of meal with the aim of pleasuring all the senses
gastronome scientist of good food (n.)
gourmet of the best quality (adj.)
gourmand gluttonous, negative connotation (consider relevance of semantic shifts)
gourmandise unrestrained enjoyment of fine foods and wines etc. (consider the relevance of semantic shift)
food central aspect of culture, limited by foodways and that is how become defined by
foodways the way in which foods move around (both natural and manmade). with time has become more advanced
cook common term to refer to someone who makes food
chef head of cooks, french word for "head" over tome adopted a food based connotation, now it's literal meaning is no longer relevant
sous chef assistant to chef
chef de patisserie deals with desserts
7 deadly sins anger, greed, sloth, pride, envy, [lust and gluttony]. last two acceptable in some cultures. age old problem has been where to draw the line with these emotions Every Good Swimmer Practices Every Last Glide
bonne chere good food, great meal. derived from the French word "chere" which means face-- so face is smiling, chere is meat
recipe to take, a formula, list of instructions (an instructional term)
banquet food celebration
convivium meeting up, banquet, food related celebration
symposium giant table, banquet style, horse-shoe shaped where food is placed in the center
credenza service table upon which cold food is displayed
kitchen hot preparation of food, cooking
foraging gathering. think Adam and Eve and the Garden of Eden before the times of agriculture
libation drinks
tuscany southern capital of food and culture in Italy. olive oil, pasta, birth of Renaissance
emilia-romagna birthplace of Artusi, animal fat, pasta (north of Florence)
risorgimento rising up again, goal was to return to the greatness of the Renaissance through reunification, time of great poverty and violence
renaissance rebirth, cultural explosion in Italy
repast a meal or the food provided at a meal
collation a light, informal meal
manuscript an author's work that has not been published or just handwritten, during the renaissance humanists were in search of original manuscripts from the past as a source of inspiration
printing press the invention of the printing press allowed for the quick productions of many copies of a work which meant dissemination of new ideas was easier
Epicurus ancient greek philosopher that preached to live in the moment, give in to desires
Epicure someone who really knows how to enjoy life
Humanism major revolution marked by a shift in interest to ancient Greek texts, interested in shaping human life on earth, antagonistic to the preachings of the church
Maestro Martini most important cook of the 15th century, cook for Cardinal and wrote Libro de Arte Coquinaria , helped italy make the transition from medieval to renaissance cuisine
Bartolomeo Scappi famous renaissance chef, cooked for cardinal, wrote Opera dell'arte del cucinare which included 1,000 recipes, first depiction of a fork
Cristoforo di Messisbugo organized banquets for the emperor Charles V, wrote instructional book
Bartolomeo Sacchi (platina) wrote first book of gastronomy ever recorded, secretary of the Vatican Library
1848 Italian nationalists rebelling famine, wanted a united Italian country, first italian war of independence
1860 italy unifies and becomes a country
Pellegrino Artusi from forlimpopoli, traveled throuhout Italy and recorded recipes liked, brought Italy together with food
Gioacchino Rossini famous opera singer was know for being passionate about eating good food
Pinocchio written 1892, context: risorgimento, fighting hunger was a common theme
Caterina di Medici married off to king of France, took over when he died, brought women to governing table
Created by: tstevenson92