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Said the earth was round. Calculated the planet circumference with amazing accuracy even by modern standards. First to make topographical map of Indian Plateau.
Ahmed Ebn Majed
Geographer & Navigator known as "Lion of the Sea". First discoverer of Cape of Hope (South Africa). Guided Vasco de Gama to India. First to develop a latitude grid navigation instrument based on the stars. His writings still kept in the French museum.
made a famous world map. Believed the geocentric theory. Spent most of his life in Egypt.
Used a Globe made by Almassoudi for the king of Sicili to locate and "discover" America (Almariqa on the Arabic map). Lead four sea voyages including one to Almariqa (America), his ships adopted hull design of Arabic ocean class design of the Omanis.
introduced the heliocentric theory to Europe after reading writings of Ebn Shatir of Damascus. Put on trial by the Church.
Drew a modern world map and therefore raised the standards of map making.
Designer of the world's first solar year-round-clock (still standing). His writings about astronomy influnced Copernicus. Foremost maker of Mechanical clocks in his time. Lived in Damascus during the early Middle Ages.
Scientist & Geographer who made the world's 2nd famous Earth Globe long before Copernicus's heliocentric theory. Resided & worked in Sicili. Columbus later used Almassoudi's maps to locate "Almariqa" , original name for America on that globe.
Invented Arabic numerals, Algorithims, & basics of Calculus. Made the worlds first Earth Globe.
Ebn Sina (Avicina)
Multitalented scientist. His writings made the basis for modern Medicine. First to build Hospitals.
Real inventor of the mechanical clock. Lived in Baghdad during the Abbas Caliphs. The Caliph Aaron Alrasheed sent one of his clocks as a gift to Charlmagn king of Germany; who thought it was haunted when it started ticking.
Most famous Muslim founder of modern Medicine. Doctor & Philosopher. Wrote 100's of volumes in various sciences & the humanities.
Founder of Philosophy as a science. Most famous of his works is "Almuqademah", which is a long introduction to philosophy.
Jaber Ebn Hyan (Algebra)
Founded Algebra as a branch of mathematics. First scientist to say the Atom is not the smallest component of matter, and thus it could create an explosion large enough to "destroy Baghdad" as he predicted in his writings more than 1000 years ago.
First doctor to discover & make medically accurate diagram of the "Minor Blood Circuit" in the human body. Lived in Morocco.