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Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

spatial   of or pertaining to space on or near the Earth's surface  
absolute location   actual spot where something is located, including data such latitude and longitude  
relative location   location relative to other human and physical features on the landscape  
site   the physical character of a place  
situation   the location of a place relative to other places  
place name   a toponym, or the name given to a place on earth  
absolute direction   precise and exact mathematical direction one place is to another  
relative direction   vague direction one place is in relation to another  
absolute distance   exact, mathematical distance from one point to another in some unit of measure  
relative distance   approximate or vague distance one point is from another; an approximation  
size   amount of land an area takes up; relative or precise  
scale   implied degree of generalization  
physical attributes   natural landscape (the environment before human impact on it; nature)  
cultural attributes   cultural landscape (fashioning of a natrual landscape by a cultural group)  
built landscape   one created or modified by human action  
sequence occupance   change over time of the cultural environment of the local area  
environmental determinism   a 19th and early 20th century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment cuased human activiti  
possibilism   the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives  
spatial interaction   an analytical technique that estimates the number of interactions occurring between an origin and destination locations.  
accessibility   the availability of an area for human reach and settlement  
connectivity   the relationship places have between themselves  
network   the complicated system of connectivity amongst places all around the world  
distance decay   the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with incrasing distance from its origin  
friction of distance   similar to distance decay; the ability to communicate with locations farther away becomes more difficult  
time-space compression   a process in which time is reorganized in such a way as to reduce the constraints of space; shortening of time and a ‘shrinking’ of space  
hearth   the region from which innovative ideas originate  
relocation diffusion   the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another  
expansion diffusion   the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process  
heirarchial diffusion   the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places  
contagious diffusion   the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population  
stimulus   the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected  
distribution   the arrangement of something across Earth's surface  
arithmetic density   the total number of people divided by the total land area  
physiological density   the number of poeple per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture  
dispersion   the spread of an idea, practice, etc. by varying methods  
concentration   the spread of something over a given area  
dispersed/scattered concentration   far apart  
clustered/agglomerated concentration   concentratration in one area; close together  
pattern   the geometric or regular arrangement of something in study areas  
linear pattern   trends fall in one line  
centralized pattern   trends are featured primarily in one region, spreading out from there  
random pattern   no visible trend recognizable  
region   an area distinguished by a unique cominatino of trends or features  
formal/uniform region   an area in which everyone shares in one or more idstinctive characteristics  
functional/nodal region   an area organized around a node or focal point  
perceptual/vernacular region   an area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity  
map   tool most uniquely identified with geography; the ability to use and interpret maps is an essential geography skill; a two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Eearth;s surface or a portion of it  
map scale   distance on a map relative to distance on earth  
large scale map   shows great detail  
small scale map   shows little detail; vague  
distortion   alteration of the original shape of the Earth that occurs when placing it onto a flat map  
projection   the system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map  
grid   patterns of latitude and longitute put over a map  
latitude   the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator  
parallel   a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians  
Equator   located at 0 degrees latitude  
longitude   the nubmering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian  
meridian   an arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles  
prime meridian   the meridian, designated at 0 degrees longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England  
International Date Line   an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth opposite the Prime Meridian which offsets the date as one travels east or west across it; it corresponds to the time zone boundary separating +12 and -12 hours GMT  
thematic map   shows the spatial distribution of one or more specific data themes for standard geographic areas, generally by varying hues and shades of colors  
statistical map   used to display the distribution of a variable over a geographic area, usually defined by political boundaries  
cartogram   a diagram which uses the form of a map to present numeric information while maintaining some degree of geographic accuracy  
dot map   generally illustrates varying amounts of concentration using dots  
choropleth map   map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed on the map, such as population density or per-capita income  
isoline map   map containing lines or shaded regions to distinguish different regions of various attributes (most weather maps)  
mental map   an internal representation of a portion of the Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located  
Geographic Information Sensing (GIS)   a system for creating and managing spatial data and associated attributes; capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, and displaying geographically-referenced information  
Global Positioning System (GPS)   A system that determines the precise position of something on Erath through a series of satellites, tracking sections, and recievers  
Remote Sensing   The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods  
Models   simplified abstractions of realtiy, structured to clarify casual relationships, used to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviours  
adaptive strategies   describes system of economic production; the most important reason for similarities between two (or more) unrelated societies is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy  
agrarian   pertaining to agriculture  
agribusiness   the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's sufrace through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain  
agricultural industrialization   purpose was to make it possible for fewer people to produce more; transformation of agriculture to more factory and production oriented  
agricultural landscape   the area on which agriculture is cultivated, and its level of fertility  
agricultural origins   where agriculture first began, by long term experimentation and trial and error vegitative- southeast asia, west africa, northewst south america seed- west india, north china, ethiopia, southwest asia  
agriculture   the deliberate effort to modify a protion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain  
animal domestication   phenomenon whereby a wild biological organism is habituated to survive in the company of human beings; Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered for human purpose  
aquaculture   the cultivation of the natural produce of water (such as fish or shellfish, algae and other aquatic plants)  
biorevolution   the end result of biotechnology. improved methods of producing food.  
biotechnology   technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine; the manipulation of organisms to do practical things and to provide useful products  
collective farm   an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farm's net output; also called collectivization  
commercial agriculture   agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm  
intensive substinence agriculture   a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land  
extensive agriculture   an agricultural production system over a vast area of land, such as the Great Plains; practised on low-cost land and so doesn't require chemical stimulants  
core/periphery   a boundary or outer part of any space or body; not as connected  
crop rotation   the practice of growing two (or more) dissimilar type of crops in the same space in sequence; a practice of polyculture  
cultivation regions   areas where crops are more likely to be successful and able to cultivate  
dairying   a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and eventual retail sale  
debt-for nature swap   an agreement between a developing nation in debt and one or more of its creditors  
double cropping   harvesting twice a year from the same field  
primary sector   the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry  
secondary sector   the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials  
tertiary sector   the portion of the economy concerned with transporation, communications, and utilites, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment  
quatenary economic sector   not tied to resources, the environment, or access to a market; with improvements in telecommunications, these economic activitees can be located antwhere; factors that tend to affect are the location of "high tech" economic activities  
quinary sector   sector of the economy associated with the technology and changes  
pesticides   any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any insect or pest  
soil erosion   displacement of soil by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms, harming soil nutrients  
desertification   degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting  
extensive susistence agriculture   subsistence agriculture practiced over a large spread of land  
shifting cultivation   a form of sustinence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period  
slash-and-burn   another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing vegitation and burning the debris  
milpa   a crop-growing system in the Yucatán peninsula area of Mexico; calls for 2 years of cultivation and eight years of letting the area lie fallow  
swidden   a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning  
nomadic herding/pastoralism   a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals  
extractive industry   industries involved in finding, extracting, and associated processing of natural resources located in or on Earth's surface  
farm crisis   occured during the 1980's; the depletion of true 'family farms' to industry  
farming   A tract of land cultivated for the purpose of agricultural productio  
feedlot   A plot of ground on which livestock are fattened for market  
First Agricultural Revolution   considered to have occurred some time around 9000-7000 BC, most likely in the "hearth areas"; generally recognized to have begun with the development of seed-based agriculture and the use of animals  
fishing   activity of hunting for fish or other aquatic animals  
food chain   describe the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community; show the transfer of material and energy from one species to another within an ecosystem  
forestry   the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources  
globalized agriculture   agriculture used for marketing and commercial purposes rather than personal or servival uses  
green revolution   rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers  
growing season   the period of each year when crops can be grown, determined by climate and crop selection  
hunting and gathering   in anthropological terms one whose predominant method of subsistence involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild, using foraging and hunting, without significant recourse to the domestication of either  
intensive subsistence agriculture   a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yiled form a parcel of land  
intertillage   maunal loosening of soil, plow, weed, and spread fertilizer during the crop-growing period  
livestock ranching   To manage or work domestic animals, such as cattle or horses, raised for home use or for profit on a ranch  
market gardening   a small business growing fruits and vegetables, perhaps in glasshouses or in the open, which is sufficiently near a city – specifically its market – for produce to be transported there and arrive in fresh condition  
mediterranean agriculture   a temperate biome, characterized by hot-dry summers and mild and rainy winters, with a specific pattern of agriculture, specializing in grapes and wine  
mineral fuels   are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, oil and natural gas  
mining   the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam  
planned economy   an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services is planned ahead of time, in either a centralized or decentralized fashion  
plant domestication   the modification of plants for human usage  
plantation   a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one ore two crops for sale  
renewable   a resource that has theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans  
nonrenewable   a source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted  
rural settlement   the settling of an area with characteristic of the country  
dispersed rural settlement   a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages  
nucleated rural settlement   a phase transition of rural settlments in a small but stable region  
building material of rural settlement   typically resources found around the settlement; for example, a settlement based on forestry may have building materials of wood  
village form of rural settlement   tightly clustered  
Carl Sauer   fierce critic of Environmental Determinism, which was the prevailing theory in Geography when he began his career; Sauer rejected positivism, preferring particularist and historicist understandings of the world.  
second agricultural revolution   Farmers began using new fertilizers for land and artificial feedstuffs for animals. Combined with improved drainage this meant the agricultural economy was very strong between 1840-70  
specilization   the act of specializing; making something suitable for a special purpose; specifically agriculture for a specific purpose  
staple grains   grains that compose the main part of ones diet, such as wheat, rice, corn, oats, barely, rye, millet, quinoa, sorghum, wild rice, spelt, and tef.  
suitcase farming   farming outside of a country  
survey patterns   patterns of certain areas more likely to be surveyed  
long lots (survey pattern)   surveying long strips of land from one point to another (such as between bodies of water)  
metes and bounds   a system or method of describing land, 'real' property (in contrast to personal property) or real estate; uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define and describe the boundaries of a parcel of land  
township-and-range   method of surveying where each piece of land is divided into geometrical shapes (like square miles)  
susainable yield   farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typicalyl by rotating soil-resotring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides  
third agricultural revolution   agricultural revolution based primarily on increased productivity; the "miracle seed"  
mechanization   use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task  
chemical farming   the use of chemicals to modify seeds and plants to increase productivity  
food manufacturing   producing food for the masses rather than for individual use; includes collecting, packaging, etc  
"Tragedy of the Commons"   a phrase used to refer to a class of phenomena that involve a conflict for resources between individual interests and the common good  
transhumance   the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures  
truck farm   commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities  
Johann Von Thunen   developed the first serious treatment of spatial economics, connecting it with the theory of rent; created Von Thunen model of agriculture which organizes farming by methods to maximize profits  
Acculturation   the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture  
assimilation   the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another  
cultural adaptation   Change in behavior of a culture or group in response to new or modified surroundings  
cultural core/perifphery pattern   where a culture originated  
cultural ecology   geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships  
cultural identity   The set of behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognizable as a part of a culture  
cultural landscape   fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group  
cultural realm   an area within a culture  
culture   the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material tratis that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition  
culture region   the area of culture shared by most members  
formal cultural region   area of near uniformity in one or several characteristics  
functional culture region   area created by the interactions between the core and cultural region (surrounding area)  
perceptual (vernacular) culture region   area defined by subjective perceptions that reflect the feelings and images when perception comes from local people  
expansion diffusion   the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process  
relocation diffusion   the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another  
innovation adoption   the adoption of innovations or inventions between cultures  
maladaptive diffusion   spread of the inability to adapt productively  
sequent occupance   each group that occupies and dominates an environment leaves its imprint  
adaptive strategies   strategies a culture or group uses to adapt to their surroundings  
anglo-american landscape characteristics   characteristics found among the anglo-american landscape  
architectural form   The art and science of designing and erecting buildings according to cultural procedures or customs  
built environment   The urban environment consisting of buildings, roads, fixtures, parks, and all other human developed improvements that form the physical character of a city.  
folk culture   culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogenous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups  
folk food   types of food that originated by small, homogenous, rural groups living in relative isolation from other groups  
folk house   traditional ways to build houses originating from a small, relatively isolated hearth, transmitted orally  
folk songs   composed anonymously and transmitted orally  
folklore   The traditional beliefs, myths, tales, and practices of a people, transmitted orally.  
material culture   culture visible through artifacts  
nonmaterial culture   cultural patterns or customs that don't involve material items  
popular culture   culture found in a large, heterogenous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics  
survey systems   organized and coordinated methods used to survey.  
traditional architecture   cultures express a shared heritage in patterns of construction of their shelter  
creole   a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated  
dialect   a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation  
indo-european languages   spanish, german, hindi, russian, english  
isogloss   a boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate  
language   a system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning  
language family   a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history  
language group   a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary  
language subfamily   subfivision of a language family, such as the germanic branch of indo-european languages  
lingua franca   a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages  
linguistic diversity   many different languages spoken within a country  
mono/multilingual   ability to speak one language/ability to speak multiple languages  
official language   the language adopted for use by the govenment for the conduct of business and publication of documents  
pidgin   any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues  
toponymy   a name of a locality, region, or some other part of Earth's surface or an artificial feature.  
trade language   language that is used for business and international matters when they don't speak the same language  
annexation   legally adding land area to a city in the united states  
antartica   not a country due to zero population, many claimed territories overlapped among one another,  
apartheid   laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically seperated different races into different geographic areas  
balkanization   process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities  
border landscape   the land composing the area of a location containing the border between two countries  
boundry disputes   a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states  
boundary origin   the origin of the boundary of a state  
boundary type   natural/physical, ethnographic/cultural, boundary  
buffer state   a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them  
capital   the principal city or town associated with its government. It is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law  
centrifugal   something that pulls a country/group apart  
centripetal   an attitude that tends to unify people and inhance support for a state  
city-state   a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland  
colonialism   attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory  
confederation   an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution.  
conference of berlin (1884)   convinced countries that common trade in africa was a wise idea  
core/periphery   where something originiates  
decolonization   the process by which a colony gains its independence from a colonial power  
devolution   the granting of powers from central government to government at regional or local level  
domino theory   indicates that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end.  
EEZ   a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. Generally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast  
electoral regions   divided regions among a state in which electoral boundaries are drawn  
enclave/exclave   country totally inside another/country totally seperated from its 'mother' country  
ethnic conflict   conflict that results from clashing ethnic groups.  
european union   an intergovernmental and supranational union of 25 European countries, known as member states. ctivities cover all areas of public policy, from health and economic policy to foreign affairs and defence.  
federal   A two-tier system of government where defence and foreign policy is dealt with at one level and health, education and housing at another.  
forward capital   a capital that is forward in government  
frontier   a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control  
geopolitics   The belief that location and physical environment are important factors in the global power structure.  
gerrymandering   process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefitting the party in power  
global commons   common global happenings  
heartland/rimland   center of a country/outskirts of a country  
immigrant states   state that people immigrate into from another country  
international organization   organization involving more than one state (country)  
iron curtain   Between 1945 and 1989, the imaginary barrier between the capitalist and the Eastern bloc communist countries: USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria and Albania.  
irredentism   an international relations term that involves advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. It is a feature of identity politics and cultural an  
israel/palestine   ome individuals and groups advocate total territorial removal of the other community, some advocate a two-state solution, and some advocate a binational solution of a single secular state encompassing present-day Israel, the Gaza strip, the West Bank, and  
landlocked   a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea  
law of the sea   a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. Under conventions of international law, the flag flown by a ship generally determines the source of law to be applied in admiralty cases, regardless of which court has personal jurisdic  
halford J. mackinder   Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world  
manifest destiny   the belief that the United States had a divinely inspired mission to expand, spreading its form of democracy and freedom. Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only good, but that it was obvious and inevitable  
median-line principle   East Timor's negotiating position is based on a median line (that is, drawing a line halfway between Australia and East Timor) and on equitable lateral boundaries. Australia disagrees with this position.  
microstate   a state that encompasses a very small land area  
ministate   small part of a state  
nation   A large number of people of mainly common descent, language, and history.  
national iconography   songs, poems, prints, etc that promote centripital feelings of nationality  
nation-state   a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality  
nunavut   the largest and newest of the territories of Canada; it was separated officially from the vast Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999 via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the actual boundaries were established in 1993. The  
raison d'etre   reason to exist  
reapportionment   the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. This is typically done in proportion to the population in the individual sectors. The United States, for instance, delimits the House of Representa  
regionalism   a term in international relations that refers to the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express that particular identity and shape collection action within a geographical  
religious conflict   conflict based upon religious struggles  
reunification   reunification of all of a "state" under a single political entity  
satellite state   a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power.  
self-determination   concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves  
shatter belt   A zone of fragmented rock caused by movement along a fault.  
sovereignty   ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states  
state   an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established goernment with control over its internal and foreign affairs (country)  
stateless ethnic groups   ethnic group with no country to call their own (the kurds)  
stateless nation   group of united people with no set state or country  
suffrage   the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right.  
supranationalism   a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states.  
territorial disputes   conflicts between the area held by a state  
territorial morphology   A State’s physical shape  
territoriality   The need by an individual or group to establish and hold an area of land.  
theocracy   a form of government in which a religion or faith plays the dominant role. Properly speaking, it refers to a form of government in which the organs of the religious sphere replace or dominate the organs of the political sphere.  
treaty ports   port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the so-called Unequal Treaties, i.e. imposed by imperialist naval powers on militarily helpless Asian states.  
UNCLOS   provided new universal legal controls for the management of marine natural resources and the control of pollution.  
unitary   governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. The political power of government in such states may well be transferred to lower levels  
USSR collapse   The changes in the USSR occurred most dramatically during the 1980s and early 1990s, with perestroika, the dramatic fall of the Berlin Wall, and finally the dissolution of the Soviet Union.  
woman's enfranchisement   took many decades to achieve because women had to persuade a male electorate to grant them the vote. Many men — and some women — believed that women were not suited by circumstance or temperament for the vote.  
population densities   the distributions of people in comparison to available resources  
demographic regions   the population characteristics of a region  
population distributions   the arrangement of people in comparison to available resources across earth  
ecumene   portion of earth's surface occupied by human settlement  
natural increase rate   the percentage in which a population grows in a year CDR-CBR=NIR  
infant mortality rate   the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with live births  
mortality   number of deaths  
population explosion   when a population increases dramatically over a short period of time  
Thomas Malthus   english economist who predicted that population would outgrow food resources  
demographic transition model   chart that shows a sequence of changes over time in vital population growth rates  
zero population growth   where crude birth rate equals crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero  
age distribution   the age structure of a population  
population pyramid   a bar graph that displays a country's population by age and gender groups  
cohort   groups ages on population pyramids  
sex ratio   the number of males per hundred females in the population  
gendered space   the relationship between males and females in a population  
standard f living   average income, healthcare, well-being, etc  
diffusion of fertility control   the way fertility control changes from place to place  
disease diffusion   how diseases move from place to place  
maladaption   a country's inability to adapt to diseases or other problems  
sustainability   the ability in which a country sustains its population  
epidemiological transition model   distinctive causes of death in the demographic transition  
demographic equation   equates size distribution and composition of populations  
dependency ratio   amount of people 15 and younger and 65+ in relation to others  
doubling time   the amount of time it takes for a population to double itself  
overpopulation   when a country's population ougrows the environment's capacity for life  
underpopulation   when a country doesn't have enough people to manage all the neccessary jobs for economic growth  
carrying capacity   amount of people a region can support  
population projection   estimation of future population growth  
neo-malthusian   people who supported and grew off of malthus's predictions  
demographic momentum   the rate at which a population is changing  
push-pull factors   factors that induce people to move to or from a location  
voluntary   permanent movement undertaken by choice  
forced   permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors  
transmigration   The movement of people from one area of a country to another, often to relieve population pressure.  
refugee   people who are forced to migrate from their home country and can not return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion  
migration patterns   patterns in which people migrate by  
intercontinental mig. patterns   migrations patterns within coninents  
interregional mig. patterns   permanent movement from one region of a country to another  
rural-urban mig. patters   permanent movement from a rural area to an urban area  
place utility   utilizing a place for its abilities  
activity space   The space in which the majority of a person's activities are carried out.  
personal space   The zone around an individual which he reserves for himself.  
space-time prism   prism which forcasts variables within time and space  
gravity model   A model of the interaction between two places in relation to their distance apart.  
distance decay   the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin  
step migration   A type of migration which occurs in a series of movements, for example from a hamlet to a village, from a village to a town, and from a town to a city.  
chain migration   migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there  
intervening opportunity   an enviromental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration  
cyclic movement   movements that occur on a regular basis  
migratory movement   form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location  
periodic movement   movement for only a short period of time  
transhumance   seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures  
internal migration   migration within a country  
agricultural labor force   the labour force engaged in agriculture including farmers; stock raisers; farm managers and foremen; farm labourers; the personnel of establishments primarily engaged in custom threshing, ploughing, etc; varies between MDCs an LDCs  
calorie consumption   the amount of food in calories consumed by each person in a nation  
core-periphery model   assumption of static expectations; states that migration is the key to agglomeration, but migrants base their decision on current wage differences alone  
cultural convergence   moving toward or to achieve union or a common conclusion or result between various cultures  
dependency theory   the body of social science theories by various intellectuals, both from the Third World and the First World, that create a worldview which suggests that the wealthy nations of the world need a peripheral group of poorer states in order to remain wealthy.  
development   development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants  
energy consumption   the amount of energy used by a nation  
foreign direct investment   movement of capital across national frontiers in a manner that grants the investor control over the acquired asset  
gender   sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture, and its effect  
gross domestic product (GDP)   total value of final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year, regardless of ownership. It may be used as one of many indicators of the standard of living in a country  
gross national product (GNP)   The total market value of all the goods and services produced by a nation during a specified period  
human development index   a comparative measure of poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, childbirth, and other factors for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare  
levels of development   more developed (MDC) and less developed (LDC); methods of determining development of nations  
measures of development   economic, social, and demographic indicators which distinguish a country's level of development  
neo-colonialism   a term used to describe certain economic operations at the international level which have alleged similarities to the traditional colonialism of the 16th to the 19th centuries. The contention is that governments have aimed to control other nations through  
physical quality of life index   an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is a single number derived from basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one, all equally weighted on a 0 to 100 scale.  
purchaisng power parity   an estimate of the exchange rate required to equalise the purchasing power of different currencies, given the prices of goods and services in the countries concerned  
W.W. Rostow   an American economist prominent for his staunch opposition to Communism and belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise  
"Stages of Growth" model   the purpose of this model is both to be able to understand the current situation in terms of a specific stage as well as to be able to develop strategies to move to a higher stage in the future  
technology gap   the differing level of available technology amongst nations, specifically LDCs and MDCs  
technology transfer   the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research  
world systems theory   explores the role and relationships between societies, created in response to the many new activities in the capitalist world-economy during the mid 1970s  
acid rain   any type of precipitation with a pH that is unusually low; causes damage to crops, structures, etc.  
agglomeration   an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns; urbanized area  
agglomeration economies   a powerful force that help explain the advantages of the "clustering effect" of many activities ranging from retailing to transport terminals  
air pollution   concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrgoetn oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than ocurs in average air  
aluminum industry   a major U.S. industry, producing almost $39.1 billion in products and exports  
factors of production   elements that contrl or limit the effectiveness of production  
assembly line   a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product  
production/Fordism   form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly  
bid rent theory   suggests different functions will bid differently for land in various parts of the city; the more accessible the site of land, the higher is its value  
break-of-bulk point   a location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another  
canadian industrial heartland   Ontario has evolved as the country's industrial heartland, partly because it could offer secure supplies of competitively-priced electricity over the past 100 years  
carrier efficiency   ability of transportation to move products efficiently  
comparative advantage   explains why it can be beneficial for two countries to trade, even though one of them may be able to produce every kind of item more cheaply than the other  
cumulative causation   continuous and building process of causing in industry  
deglomeration   The movement of industrial activity away from areas of concentration  
deindustrialization   The decreasing significance of industrial employment in developed economies.  
economic sectors   divisions of economics, including oil&gas, minerals, manufacturing, forestry, etc.  
economies of scale   Factors that cause average cost to be lower in large-scale operations than in small-scale ones, therefore doubling ithe output results in a less than double increase in costs  
eco-tourism   An environmentally friendly alternative form of tourism  
energy resources   includes fossil fuels, solar, nuclear, wind, tiday, hyrdo, etc., sources from which energy are obtained  
entrepot   a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit  
export processing zone   eases tax and labor restrictions and their primary purpose is to generate export revenues in poor developing countries  
fixed costs   prices for fuel that cannot be adjusted  
footloose industry   An industry which has a relatively free choice of location and is not influenced by access to markets or raw materials  
four tigers   refers to the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. These territories and nations were noted for maintaining high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s  
greehouse effect   anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface  
growth poles   A small area within a country in which new economic development is targeted  
heartland/rimland   Rimland is the maritime fringe of a country or continent; in particular, the densely populated western, southern, and eastern edges of the Eurasian continent; Heartland is most often a geopolitical term used to refer to a central area of Eurasia  
industrial location theory   The theoretical reasons for the location of industrial activity  
industrial regions   specified regions of particular industries based on theory  
fuel source   resources for fuel power, such as coal, oil, petroleum, based on availability  
characteristics of Industrial regions   highly centralized, technologically developed  
industrial revolution   A series of improvements in industrial technology that transfomed the process of manufacturing goods  
receding industry   declination in industry  
growing industry   industry that is increasing  
infrastructure   The communication networks, administration and power supply necessary for economic development.  
international division of labor   The separation of the different components of industry and the allocation of each component to a different location world-wide  
labor-intensive   and industry for which labor costs compromise a high percentage of total expenses  
least-cost location   A site chosen for industrial development where total costs are at their theoretical lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue  
major manufacturing regions   the U.S., Japan, Soviet Union, Europe  
manufacturing exports   Consists of companies that convert raw materials from a primary industry into finished goods or which assemble components made by other manufacturing companies. This is a secondary industry.  
manufacturing/warehouse location   near the final destination of the product  
industrial parks   A planned area with small, purpose built factory units often located near transport routes.  
shared services   a business term referring to the consolidation and sharing of services by different units within an organization  
zoning   limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community  
transportation (manufacturing)   determines where certain areas of the industry are located, based on transportation costs  
taxes (manufacturing)   also determine where things are assembled  
maquiladora   factories built by the U.S. companies in Mexico or near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico  
market orientation   The tendency of an industry to locate close to its market  
multiplier effect   A new or expanding economic activity in an area creating extra employment and raising the total purchasing power of the population, which in turn attracts further economic development creating more employment, services and wealth  
environmental considerations   possibilities that weigh into decisions based on the environment  
NAFTA   North American Free Trade Agreement; a free trade agreement among Canada, the United States, and Mexico  
outsourcing   often defined as the delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation  
ozone depletion   the chemical destruction of the gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere above Earth's surface  
plant location   based on relative distance from market and transporation cost  
supplies (plant location)   found around the plant itself  
"just in time" delivery   Where costs are minimised by not stockpiling raw materials and finished goods on site. Carefully planned scheduling of resources ensures that manufacturing industry can meet demand, but lower storage costs  
postindustrial   a proposed name for an economy that has undergone a specific series of changes in structure after a process of industrialization  
refrigeration   generally the cooling of food by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it to expand perishability  
resource crisis   The consumption of non-renewable, finite resources which will eventually lead to their exhaustion  
resource orientation   The tendency of secondary industry to locate near the source of its raw material or materials  
Special Economic Zones (China)   found in Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou in Guangdong Province and Xiamen in Fujian Province, and designated the entire province of Hainan a special economic zone  
Specialized Economic Zones   a geographical region that has economic laws different from a country's typical economic laws  
Manufacturing export zone   area where exports are shipped from  
high-tech zone   an area with the use of sophisticated and often very complex equipment and techniques. 'Hi-Tech' industry, for example.  
subsitution principle   states industries can be exchanged or subsituted when they become too costly  
threshold/range   the minimum number of people needed to support the service  
time-space compression   Improvements in transport systems reduces the time-space distance between places.  
topocide   defined as the deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed  
trade (complimentarity)   the complimentary import / export of produced goods from producers to consumers  
transnational corporation   a company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are found  
ubiquitous   Material available anywhere and not having a locational pull. Common in industrial location theory.  
variable costs   A method of costing an industrial location in terms of the spatial variations in production and costs  
Alfred Weber   German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture and his work was influential in the development of modern economic geography  
Weight-gaining   increasing the weight of a product  
weight-losing   decreasing the weight of a product  
world cities   major industrial centers of the earth  


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