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Review for Chapters 1 and 3

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Term
Definition
Chemistry   The study of matter and the changes that it undergoes.  
Matter   Anything that has mass and takes up space  
Mass   A measurement that reflects the amount of matter.  
Weight   A measure not only of the amount of matter but also of the effect of Earth's gravitational pull on that matter.  
Scientific Method   A systematic approach used in scientific study.  
Scientific Method steps   Observations-Hypothesis-Experiments-Conclusions-Revised Hypothesis-(Repeat)-Theory-Experiments-Revised Theory  
Qualitative Data   Information that describes physical characteristics: color, odor, shape  
Quantitative Data   Numerical information that tells how much, how little, how big, how tall, or how fast  
Hypothesis   A tentative explanation for what has been observed  
Experiment   A set of controlled observations that test the hypothesis  
Independent Variable   In an experiment, the variable that you plan to change  
Dependent Variable   In an experiment, the variable whose value depends on the independent variable  
Control   A standard to compare to when experimenting.  
Conclusion   A judgement based on the information obtained  
Model   A visual, verbal, and/or mathematical explanation of experimental data  
Theory   An explanation that has been supported by many, many experiments.  
Scientific Law   A relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments  
Pure Research   Seeking to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge  
Applied Research   Seeking to solve a specific problem  
Technology   The practical use of scientific information  
Substance (Pure)   Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition  
Physical Property   A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition  
Extensive Properties   A physical property that is dependent on the amount of the substance present. i.e. mass, length, volume  
Intensive Properties   A physical property that in independent of the amount of the substance present. i.e. density, boiling point  
Chemical Property   The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances i.e. iron-rust, copper-copper carbonate  
States of Matter   Classification system for all matter on Earth  
Solid   A form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume. i.e. ice, salt  
Liquid   A form of matter that flows, and constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. i.e. water, milk  
Gas   A form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of its container i.e. oxygen  
Vapor   The gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature. i.e. water vapor  
Physical Change   Changes to a substance that don't change its composition i.e. cut, bend, change state  
Chemical Change   The process of one or more substances changing into new substances. i.e. Rust  
Law of Conservation of Mass   States that mass is neither created or destroyed.  
Law of Conservation of Mass formula   Mass (reactants)= Mass (products)  
Antoine Lavoisier   French Scientist who developed the Law of Conservation of Matter  
Mixture   A combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.  
Heterogeneous Mixture   A mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct. i.e. Oil & Water  
Homogeneous Mixture   A mixture with a constant composition throughout. i.e. salt & water  
Solutions   Another name for a homogeneous mixture. i.e. laughing gas (gas-gas), metal alloy (solid-solid), soda (gas, liquid), lemonade (solid-liquid)  
Filtration   A technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid.  
Distillation   A separation technique that is based on difference in the boiling points of the substances involved.  
Crystallization   A separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance. i.e. rock candy  
Chromatography   A separation technique based on the tendency of each substance to travel across the surface of another material.  
Element   A pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means  
Number of Naturally Occurring Elements   90 (notes) or 91(book)  
Periodic Table   Organization of elements based on similar properties and masses  
Dmitri Mendeleev   1896 Russian chemist that designed the periodic table  
Periods   rows in the periodic table  
Families or Groups   Columns in the periodic table.  
Similar Electron Structures   Why elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties  
Why "Periodic"   Table is "periodic" because the pattern of similar properties repeats as you move from period to period  
Compounds   A combination of two or more different elements that are combined chemically and broken down chemically. They are more stable than the elements that make them. i.e. water, salt  
Law of Definite Proportions   Regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass.  
Percent by Mass   ratio of the mass of the element to the mass of the compound  
Joseph Proust   1797 The founder of the Law of Definite Proportions  
John Dalton   1808 The founder of the Law of Multiple Proprotions  
Law of Multiple Proportions   When different compounds are formed by the combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same mass of the other element in small whole number rations. i.e. CO vs CO2  


   






 
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