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Chemistry 1&3

Review for Chapters 1 and 3

Chemistry The study of matter and the changes that it undergoes.
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass A measurement that reflects the amount of matter.
Weight A measure not only of the amount of matter but also of the effect of Earth's gravitational pull on that matter.
Scientific Method A systematic approach used in scientific study.
Scientific Method steps Observations-Hypothesis-Experiments-Conclusions-Revised Hypothesis-(Repeat)-Theory-Experiments-Revised Theory
Qualitative Data Information that describes physical characteristics: color, odor, shape
Quantitative Data Numerical information that tells how much, how little, how big, how tall, or how fast
Hypothesis A tentative explanation for what has been observed
Experiment A set of controlled observations that test the hypothesis
Independent Variable In an experiment, the variable that you plan to change
Dependent Variable In an experiment, the variable whose value depends on the independent variable
Control A standard to compare to when experimenting.
Conclusion A judgement based on the information obtained
Model A visual, verbal, and/or mathematical explanation of experimental data
Theory An explanation that has been supported by many, many experiments.
Scientific Law A relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments
Pure Research Seeking to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge
Applied Research Seeking to solve a specific problem
Technology The practical use of scientific information
Substance (Pure) Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition
Physical Property A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition
Extensive Properties A physical property that is dependent on the amount of the substance present. i.e. mass, length, volume
Intensive Properties A physical property that in independent of the amount of the substance present. i.e. density, boiling point
Chemical Property The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances i.e. iron-rust, copper-copper carbonate
States of Matter Classification system for all matter on Earth
Solid A form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume. i.e. ice, salt
Liquid A form of matter that flows, and constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. i.e. water, milk
Gas A form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of its container i.e. oxygen
Vapor The gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature. i.e. water vapor
Physical Change Changes to a substance that don't change its composition i.e. cut, bend, change state
Chemical Change The process of one or more substances changing into new substances. i.e. Rust
Law of Conservation of Mass States that mass is neither created or destroyed.
Law of Conservation of Mass formula Mass (reactants)= Mass (products)
Antoine Lavoisier French Scientist who developed the Law of Conservation of Matter
Mixture A combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct. i.e. Oil & Water
Homogeneous Mixture A mixture with a constant composition throughout. i.e. salt & water
Solutions Another name for a homogeneous mixture. i.e. laughing gas (gas-gas), metal alloy (solid-solid), soda (gas, liquid), lemonade (solid-liquid)
Filtration A technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid.
Distillation A separation technique that is based on difference in the boiling points of the substances involved.
Crystallization A separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance. i.e. rock candy
Chromatography A separation technique based on the tendency of each substance to travel across the surface of another material.
Element A pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
Number of Naturally Occurring Elements 90 (notes) or 91(book)
Periodic Table Organization of elements based on similar properties and masses
Dmitri Mendeleev 1896 Russian chemist that designed the periodic table
Periods rows in the periodic table
Families or Groups Columns in the periodic table.
Similar Electron Structures Why elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties
Why "Periodic" Table is "periodic" because the pattern of similar properties repeats as you move from period to period
Compounds A combination of two or more different elements that are combined chemically and broken down chemically. They are more stable than the elements that make them. i.e. water, salt
Law of Definite Proportions Regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass.
Percent by Mass ratio of the mass of the element to the mass of the compound
Joseph Proust 1797 The founder of the Law of Definite Proportions
John Dalton 1808 The founder of the Law of Multiple Proprotions
Law of Multiple Proportions When different compounds are formed by the combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same mass of the other element in small whole number rations. i.e. CO vs CO2
Created by: Lachelle