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Chapter - 5 Chemical Kinetics/Equilibrium

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chemical kinetics   study of rates of rxns, the effect of rxn conditions on these rates, and the mechanisms implied by such observations  
mechanism   series of steps thru which a chemical rxn occurs  
Rate-determining Step   the slowest step in a mechanism; overall rxn can't go faster than this step  
Molarity   M; mol/L  
Rate   M/s or mol/Lxs  
Rate Law   the rate is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants raised to some power; rate = k [A]^x [B]^y  
Rate Constant   k  
Orders of rxn   exponents on the reactants (x and y)  
overall order of a rxn   sum of exponents (x + y)  
Zero-Order rxn   constant rate independent of reactant concentration so rate law is rate = k  
First-Order rxn   rate is proportional to the concentration of one reactant; rate = k [A] (radioactive decay)  
Second-Order rxn   rate is proportional to the concentration of two reactants or the square product of a single reactant; rate = k[A]2 or k[A][B]  
Mixed-Order   has a fractional order; rate = k[A]^1/3  
Higher-Order rxn   order greater than 2  
Collision Theory of Chemical Kinetics   the rate of a rxn is proportional to the number of collisions per second btwn molecules  
Activation E   min amount of E necessary for a rxn to take place; rate = fZ  
rate = fZ   Z = number of collisions/s f = fraction of effective collisons  
Transition State/Activated Complex   greatest E, once formed it can dissociate into products or revert to reactants; exists at top of E barrier  
Enthalpy   H; difference btwn PE of products and reactants. Products-Reactant  
Exothermic   negative enthalpy and heat was given off  
Endothermic   positive enthalpy and heat is absorbed/added  
Reactant Concentrations affecting Rate   the higher the concentrations, the faster the rate cuz more collisions cept zero order rxns  
Temperature   higher the temp, faster the rate  
Medium   some reactions go faster in aqueous soln and others more in benzene; state (s l or g) can have effect too  
Catalysts   substances that increase rxn rate w/o being consumed; they lower Ea.; increases frequency of collisions  
Equilibrium   when there is no NET change in the concentrations of the products and reactants during a reversible rxn  
Kc   equilibrium constant; kf/kr  
Law of Mass Action   Kc = prducts^exponents/reactants^exponents  
Keq characteristics   1. pure solids and liquids DONT appear in equilibrium constant 2. at a given temp 3. If Keq is more than 1, then the mixture will have more products 4. If Keq is less than 1, then more reactants  
Le Chatelier's Principle   a system to which a stress is applied tends to change so as to relieve the applied stress; used to determine the direction of a rxn after a stress is applied to equilibrium  
Changes in Pressure/Volume   only for gases; V and P inversely proportional; If P increases, shift to least moles; if V increases, P decreases and shift to more moles  
Temperature Changes   alters position of equilibrium and alters the value of equilibrium constant  


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