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OAT - Chem

Chapter - 5 Chemical Kinetics/Equilibrium

chemical kinetics study of rates of rxns, the effect of rxn conditions on these rates, and the mechanisms implied by such observations
mechanism series of steps thru which a chemical rxn occurs
Rate-determining Step the slowest step in a mechanism; overall rxn can't go faster than this step
Molarity M; mol/L
Rate M/s or mol/Lxs
Rate Law the rate is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants raised to some power; rate = k [A]^x [B]^y
Rate Constant k
Orders of rxn exponents on the reactants (x and y)
overall order of a rxn sum of exponents (x + y)
Zero-Order rxn constant rate independent of reactant concentration so rate law is rate = k
First-Order rxn rate is proportional to the concentration of one reactant; rate = k [A] (radioactive decay)
Second-Order rxn rate is proportional to the concentration of two reactants or the square product of a single reactant; rate = k[A]2 or k[A][B]
Mixed-Order has a fractional order; rate = k[A]^1/3
Higher-Order rxn order greater than 2
Collision Theory of Chemical Kinetics the rate of a rxn is proportional to the number of collisions per second btwn molecules
Activation E min amount of E necessary for a rxn to take place; rate = fZ
rate = fZ Z = number of collisions/s f = fraction of effective collisons
Transition State/Activated Complex greatest E, once formed it can dissociate into products or revert to reactants; exists at top of E barrier
Enthalpy H; difference btwn PE of products and reactants. Products-Reactant
Exothermic negative enthalpy and heat was given off
Endothermic positive enthalpy and heat is absorbed/added
Reactant Concentrations affecting Rate the higher the concentrations, the faster the rate cuz more collisions cept zero order rxns
Temperature higher the temp, faster the rate
Medium some reactions go faster in aqueous soln and others more in benzene; state (s l or g) can have effect too
Catalysts substances that increase rxn rate w/o being consumed; they lower Ea.; increases frequency of collisions
Equilibrium when there is no NET change in the concentrations of the products and reactants during a reversible rxn
Kc equilibrium constant; kf/kr
Law of Mass Action Kc = prducts^exponents/reactants^exponents
Keq characteristics 1. pure solids and liquids DONT appear in equilibrium constant 2. at a given temp 3. If Keq is more than 1, then the mixture will have more products 4. If Keq is less than 1, then more reactants
Le Chatelier's Principle a system to which a stress is applied tends to change so as to relieve the applied stress; used to determine the direction of a rxn after a stress is applied to equilibrium
Changes in Pressure/Volume only for gases; V and P inversely proportional; If P increases, shift to least moles; if V increases, P decreases and shift to more moles
Temperature Changes alters position of equilibrium and alters the value of equilibrium constant
Created by: JaeBae4444