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voc assig

due 9/18

polar a charge that is unevenly distributed across a molecule.
cohesion An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together .
adhesion ttractive force between two particles of different substances.
hydrogen bond the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.
hydroxide ion OH ion
Hydronium ion H3O ion
acid If the number of hydronium ions in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions.
base more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions .
ph scale a scale for comparing the relative con- centrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution.
buffer chemi- cal substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution.
Organic compound are made primarily of carbon atoms.
monomer Many carbon compounds are built up from smaller, simpler molecules .
polymer a molecule that consists of repeated, linked units.
condensation reaction Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction .
ATP Life processes require a constant supply of energy. This energy is available to cells in the form of certain compounds that store a large amount of energy in their overall structure. One of these com- pounds is adenosine.
carbohydrate organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.
monosaccharide simple sugar— contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1.
disaccharide In living things, two monosaccharides can combine in a condensa- tion reaction to form a double sugar.
polysaccharide a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.
protein are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
amino acid proteins formed from the linkage of monomers.
peptide bond two amino acids form a covalent bond.
polypeptide Amino acids often form very long chains
enzyme NA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts—are essential for the functioning of any cell.
substrate reactant being catalyzed.
active site enzyme has folds.
lipid large, nonpolar organic molecules.
steroid molecules are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them.
nucleic acid very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell.
nucleotide is made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base.
cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life.
cytoplasm the region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
cytosol The part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not membrane-bound organelles
prokaryote organisms that lack a membrane- bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
eukaryote Organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
organelle well-defined, intracellular bodies that perform specific functions for the cell.
cytoskelelton a network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol.
microtubule hollow tubes made of a protein called tubulin. Each tubulin molecule consists of two slightly different subunits. Microtubules radiate outward from a central point called the centrosome near the nucleus.
microfilament long threads of the beadlike protein actin and are linked end to end and wrapped around each other like two strands of a rope.
cilium hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.
flagellum hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.
plastid organelles that, like mitochondria, are surrounded by a double mem- brane and contain their own DNA.
Created by: im cherish