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ch101 ch 2

vocab and concepts

who founded the conservation of mass? antione lavoiser 1787
conservation of mass the products of a reaction always equals the mass of the reacting substances
who found law of definite proportions joseph proust 1797-1804
law of definite proportions all samples of the same compound always contain the same proportions by mass of the component elements
1808, Dalton's atomic theory (first 2) 1) all matter is made up of atoms 2)all atoms of an element are identical in mass and in chemical properties. however atoms of different elements have different masses and properties.
dalton's atomic theory (3 and 4) 3)atoms aren't created or destroyed by chemical reaction 4) atoms combine in simple fixed whole number ratios to form compounds
subatomic particles smaller particle found inside of atom
how many are known? how many have importance in chemical behavior? 40 , 3
protons are....electrons are....neutrons are.... positive, negative, neutral
jj thompson contributions "plum pudding" model of atomic structure. and finds electrons with cathode ray tubes experiment
ernest rutherford contributions gold foil experiment. finds nucleus
nucleus central core of atom which contains protons and neutrons; contributes most of mass of an atom
the number of protons is the atomic number
the number of protons equals the number of electrons
isotope an element that contains a specific number number of neutrons. the nucleus only has 1 proton
mass number (A) sum of protons and neutrons (N). count of number of particles in the nucleus
isotope symbol representation of mass number and atomic number of an isotope
ion when atom contains more or less electrons than protons.
examples of naturally occurring ions sodium and calcium
what are the two types of ions cation an anion
cation positively charged ion that contains fewer electron than the number of protons in the nucleus. ex calcium
anion negatively charged ion that contains more electrons than the number of protons in the nucleus. ex chlorine
atomic mass unit basic unit of mass atoms and molecules
relative atomic mass the average mass of an tom of an element taking into account the masses and the abundance of all the naturally occurring isotopes. (like hydrogen)
periodic table known elements arranged in columns and rows to emphasize periodic properties
family or group elements with similar properties in same vertical row. Labelled l - Vlll and letter A or B
period horizontal row of elements whose properties tend to vary in a regular fashion. labelled 1-7
stair step line separates the metals (left) from the nonmetals (right)
metalloid/semimetal has physical properties resembling a metal but chemical reactivity more like that of a nonmetal.
main group element (representative element) any element in one of eight groups labeled with letter A
transition metal an element in any of 10 groups labelled with letter B
inner transition metal an element that s a lanthanide (atomic number 58 to 71) of a actinide (atomic number 90 to 103)
alkali metal group lA (excluding hydrogen)..reactive
alkaline earth metal group llA. less reactive than alkali metals
halogen group VllA
noble gas group VlllA. inert most stable of all elements.
diatomic molecule molecule consisting of two atoms. ex chlorine bromine hydrogen oxygen
Created by: jasmine.teich



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