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Ch101 ch 1

vocab and concepts

matter anything that occupies space and has mass
mass measure of quantity of matter
energy capacity o move an object or transfer heat
pure substance matter that has the same chemical composition no matter what its origin ( cannot be separated into components by physical means)
mixture consist of tow or more pure substances and may vary in composition
how many types of pure substances are there? what are they? There are two. They are elements and compounds.
element (pure substance) substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by even chemical reaction
What are the building blocks of all matter? What do chemists use to classify them? Elements. The periodic table
elements can be a.... metal or nonmetal
a metal is lustrous and has good electrical conductivity
a nonmental is not lustrous and has poor electrical conductivity
element symbol a shorthand version of an elements longer name
compounds substance composed of two or more elements. A compound has properties different form those of its component elements.
chemical formula describes the composition of a compound
mixture a combination of two or more substances that can vary in composition.
what are the two types of mixtures? homogeneous and heterogeneous
homogeneous mixture has uniform composition throughout and is often a solution. however not all solutions are liquids.
heterogeneous mixture doesn't have uniform composition throughout. ( salt and pepper mixture)
macroscopic scale matter we can with our eyes
atom smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of that element.
molecules two or more atoms bound together in a discrete arrangement.
physical state, what are the three states? a form that matter can take: solid, liquid, and gas. (also aqueous solution)
solid (s) fixed shape that isn't related to shape of a container holding it. a solid cannot be compressed. (particles tightly packed)
liquid (l) has no fixed shape. it takes the shape of its container. particles aren't in arranged structure and can be compressed slightly
gas (g) shape of its container (it fills it), volume of its container, particles widely separated and move indecently of one another
aqueous solution (aq) substance is dissolved in water
qualitative observation based on quality of matter such as color, shape, texture, luster, physical state
quantitative observation based on a numerical value like mass volume density or temperature
physical properties characteristic we can observe or measure without changing the composition of a substance
kilo k 10^3
centi c 10^-2
milli m 10^-3
micro 10^-6
nano 10^-9
volume amount of space a substance occupies. v= lwh
density ratio of mass to volume d=m/v
temperature measure of how hot or cold something is
boiling point temperature at which liquid turns to gas
what is the boiling point for water in F, C and K. 212, 100, 375.15
melting point temperature at which solid turns to liquid
absolute temperature scale. no negative values, 0 is the absolute coldest (kelvins)
physical change process that changes only the physical properties of a substance, not its chemical composition.
ex of physical change liquid to gas by heat
chemical change (chemical reaction) process in which one or more substances are converted into one or more new substances.
ex of chemical change a rusted penny
chemical property characteristic of a substance defined by its composition and the chemical changes it can undergo
an inert element doesn't react to any other element or compound
ex of inert element helium
energy capacity to do work and transfer heat
work force acts over a distance
kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy energy possessed by an object because of its position
ex of potential energy chemical energy
electric energy associated with the passage of electricity; generally through metals
all forms of energy can be converted to one another
scientific method approach to asking questions and seeking answers that employs a variety of tools, techniques, and strategies
how do scientists differ from other professionals 1) test ideas by experimentation 2) organize their findings in a particular (often mathematical) ways 3) try to explain why things happen
scientific inquiry includes observations, hypotheses, laws, and theories
observation come from a naturally occurring event or a deliberate experimentation (controlled conditions)
hypotheses tentative explanation of the properties or behavior of matter that accounts for a set of observations and can be tested.
hypotheses often lead to further experimentation
laws when behavior of matter is so consistent that it appears to have universal validity
scientific law the way nature operates under specified conditions
law of conservation of mass mass of products obtained from a chemical reaction equals the mass of the substances that react
after new information was found the law of conservation of mass became the law of conservation of mass and energy
theories explain why observations, hypotheses, or laws apply under many different circumstances
hypotheses and laws explain... how nature works
accidental but fortunate breakthroughs Alexander Fleming: penicullin 1928, Henri Becquerel : radioactivity
who said, "in the fields of observation chance favors only th prepared mind" louis pasteur
combinatorial chemistry series of related chemical compounds is systematically prepared and tested for effectiveness in disease treatment
Green chemistry/ sustainability develop chemical processes that prevent pollution and dredge the amount of natural resources used to manufacture various consumer research and industrial products.
main goal of green chemistry prevent waste
Created by: jasmine.teich