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Chem 1 - Atomic Stru

Chem 1 - Atomic Structure

Proton A nucleon of an Atom. Relative Mass of 1, Relative Charge of +1. Defines the ATOMIC NUMBER of an Element.
Neutron A nucleon of an Atom. Relative mass of 1, relative charge of 0. Together with Protons defines MASS NUMBER.
Electron An atomic Particle that surrounds the Nucleus of an atom. Relative mass of 1/2000, Relative charge of -1. The major component of bonding.
Atomic Number The number of Protons in an Atom of an Element.
Mass Number The number of Protons and Neutrons in an atom of an element.
Nucleons Protons and Neutrons of an Atom.
Formulae for MAX number of electrons in a shell: 2n(squared), where n is the shell number.
energy level 1 sub shells: 1s /
energy level 2 sub shells: 1s / 2s, 2p /
energy level 3 sub shells: 1s / 2s, 2p / 3s, 3p, 3d /
Energy Level 4 Sub Shells: 1s / 2s, 2p / 3s, 3p, 3d / 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f /
Write out, in order, the subshells that are filled first up to 4f. 1s - 2s - 2p - 3s - 3p - 4s - 3d - 4p - 4d - 4f. (remember the special diagonal diagram!)
Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different number of Neutrons.
Ions Ions are atoms that have a different amount of electrons to the amount of protons.
Mass Spectrometry Is an analytical technique used to determine the mass of particles.
Name the four stages in Mass spectrometry: Ionisation, Acceleration, Deflection, Detection.
Mass Spec: Ionisation:
Mass Spec: Acceleration:
Mass Spec: Deflection:
Mass Spec: Detection:
First Ionisation Energy The amount of energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms in a gaseous state to give a charge of +1. Measured in kJ mol-1.
Why is the second Ionisation Energy always higher than the first? Because removing an electron from an ion that is already positively charged requires a much greater amount of energy.
What is the trend in first Ionisation Energies going along a period? They generally increase because of increasing nuclear attraction, until you change sub-shell or the spin of electrons changes direction.
What is the trend in Ionisation Energies going down a Group? They decrease because of a large increase of Nuclear Radius and increasing electron shielding.
Atomic Radius The distance from the Nucleus to the outer electron shell.
Electron Shielding.
Created by: mjwilson1988