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chapter 2,3,4vocphi

Physical science vocab from chapters 2,3, and 4

matter anything that has mass and takes up space
volume The amount of space taken up, or occupied, by an object
meniscus The curve at the surface of a liquid
Mass the amount of matter in an object
Weight a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
Inertia the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
physical property a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
Density the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
physical change a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
chemical property a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions
chemical change a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
newton the absolute unit of force in the International System of Units (SI units)
data Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis
observation The action or process of observing something carefully in order to gain information
hypothesis A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
theory A supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something
law various established scientific laws, or physical laws that are considered universal and invariable facts of the physical world
states of matter the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
solid the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
liquid the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
gas a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
surface tension the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
viscosity the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
temperature a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
volume a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
pressure the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
Boyle's law the law that states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of a gas when temperature is constant
Charles's law the law that states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas when pressure is constant
change of state the change of a substance from one physical state to another
melting the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat
evaporation the change of state from a liquid to a gas
boiling the conversion of a liquid to a vapor when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
condensation the change of state from a gas to a liquid
sublimation the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
element a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
pure substance a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
metal an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
metalloid an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals
compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
mixture a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed
solute in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
solvent in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
concentration the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
solubility the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
suspension a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas
colloid a mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions and that are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas
Created by: Little Dreamer



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