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Chem 111-Unit 1

mega 1 x 10^6
kilo 1x10^3
deci 1x10^-1
centi 1x10^-2
milli 1x10^-3
micro 1x10-6
nano 1x10^-9
pico 1x10^-12
chemical change changes into a different compound/element
physical change alignment of molecules changes
potential energy relates to position of an object
kinetic energy relates to motion of an object
significant figures all digits are significant except for 0s that are not measured- only there to hold the decimal place
exact numbers (when doing sig figs) have no uncertainty- infinite # of sig figs
add'n/sub'n (when doing sig figs) reported to the same decimal places as the least precise measurement
mult/div (when doing sig figs) reported to the fewest total sig figs
both +/- AND */% (when doing sig figs) order of operations!
precision how closely you can repeat a measurement
accuracy how close a measurement is to the actual value
systematic error results from setup of experiment/measurement errors (all too high or all too low)
random error unavoidable error that are not all too high or all too low
Z atomic number- # of protons in the nucleus
isotope differ by # if neutrons (which also changes the mass)
A mass number- number of protons+number of neutrons
mass spectrometry takes a sample- splits it based on mass & tells the relative percentage of each isotope in a sample
atomic mass unit (aka Daltons) 1/12 of a Carbon-12 atom by weight
atomic mass the weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes based on their abundances in nature
frequency ν (nu) cycles/second or sec^-1 or Hertz
wavelength λ (lambda) meters, nanometers, picometers, angstroms
speed of light 2.998 x 10^8
refraction when a light wave passes from one medium to another, the speed of the wave changes
diffraction when a light wave strikes the edge of an object, it bends around it
constructive interference when two waves come together and combine
destructive interference when two waves come together and cancel one another out
blackbody radiation different wavelengths depending on temperature
photoelectric effect when you shine certain frequencies of light on an element, you can eject electrons- depending on the threshold of the element
atomic emission different colors are emitted for different elements when current flows through it (very specific wavelengths for each element)
E= (modified to find wavelength) hc/(lambda)
attractive forces below 0
repulsive forces above 0
high magnitude atoms are close together (regardless of sign)
ground state n=1
as n approaches infinity... energy increases (but if negative, never crosses 0)
Created by: melaniebeale



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