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Chemistry comes aliv

Chapter 2

Energy in action Kinetic energy
Stored energy, that has the potential, or capability to do work but is not doing so potential energy
The form stored in the bonds of chemical substances Chemical energy
This energy results from the movement of charged particles Electrical energy
Energy directly involved in moving matter Mechanical energy
Energy that travels in waves Radient energy or electromagnatic energy
Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpiler substances by ordinary chemical methods Elements
What 4 elements make up 96% of body weight carbon, oxygen,hydrogen and nitrogen
unique building blocks for each element, gives each element its physical and chemical properties Atom
One or two letter chemical shorthand for each element Atomic Symbol
Atoms are composed of subatomic particles called Protons, neutrons, and electrons
where are protons and neutrons found? The nucleus
Where are electrons found? Found orbiting the nucleus in and electron cloud
What model is useful for predicting chemical behavior in atoms? Orbital model
Number of protons in the nucleus is called? Atomic Number. (Left side of atomic symbol)
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Mass number
Two or more atoms bonded together is called? A molecule
Two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together is called? A compound
What are the 3 types of mixtures? Solutions, Colloids, Suspentions
Solutions are Homogenous mixtures
Substance found in greatest amount, usually in water, and usually a liquid Solvent
Present in smaller amounts Solute
Colloids AKA (emulsions) are Heterogenous mixtures. Can be liqid or solid some undergo Sol-gel transformations
Suspentions are Heterogenous mixtures
Mixtures have NO chemical bonding, they CAN be seperated by physical means, and they are Hetero or Homogenious
Compounds HAVE chemical bonding between components, they CAN be seperated only by BREAKING bonds, all are HOMOgenious
What are chemical bonds? Energey rel;ationships between ELECTRONS of reacting atoms
What is a Valance shell? Outermost electron shell
What are the 3 types of chemical bonds? Ionic Bonds, Covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds
Chemical Bond between atoms formed by the transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another Ionic bond ex. table salt and and sodium chloride (NaCl)
chemical bond created electron SHARING between atoms Covalent bonds
How are covalent bonds formed? By sharing TWo or more valence shell electrons
Non polor= shared Equally, straight structure Polor= NO sharing ex CO2 ex H2O
Attractive force between electro+ H of one molecule abd a electro- atom of another molucule Hydrogen bond
When do chemical reactions occur? When chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken.
What is synthesis? When atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule A+B->AB
when does a decomposition reaction occur? When a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules AB->A+B
Created by: tastarr



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