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Definitions ch. 2

atoms, molecules, and ions

Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements form more than one compound, the masses of one element in these compounds for a fixed mass of the other element are in rations of small whole numbers.
Isotope Atoms whose nuclei have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Ionic compound A compound composed of cations and anions.
Ion An electrically charged particle obtained from an atom or a chemically bonded group of atoms by adding or removing electrons.
Inorganic Compound Compounds composed of elements other than carbon.
Hydrocarbon Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrate A compound that contains water molecules weakly bound in its crystals.
Group (of the periodic table) The elements in any one column of the periodic table.
Functional Group A reactive portion of a molecule that undergoes predictable reactions.
Fractional (Isotopic) Abundance The fraction of the total number of atoms that is composed of a particular isotope.
Formula Unit The group of atoms or ions explicitly symbolized in the formula.
Electron A very light, negatively charged particle that exists in the region around the atom's positively charged nucleus.
Chemical Nomenclature The systematic naming of chemical compounds.
Chemical Formula A notation that uses atomic symbols with numerical subscripts to convey the relative proportions of atoms of the different elements in a substance.
Chemical Equation The symbolic representation of a chemical reation in terms of chemical formulas.
Cation A positively charged ion.
Binary Compound A compound composed of only two elements.
Atomic Theory An explanation of the structure of matter in terms of different combinations of very small particles.
Atomic Symbol A one- or two- lettered notation used to represent an atom corresponding to a particular element.
Atomic Number (Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) A mass unit equal to exactly one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
Atomic Mass As a general term, the mass of an individual atom.
Atom An extremely small particle of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions.
Anion A negatively charged ion.
Reactant A starting substance in a chemical reaction.
Proton A particle found in the nucleus of the atom. It has a positive charge equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign, to that of the electron and a mass 1836 times that of the electron.
Product A substance that results from a chemical reaction.
Polymer A very large molecule made up of a number of smaller molecules repeatedly linked together.
Polyatomic Ion An ion consisting of two or more atoms chemically bonded together and carrying a net electric charge.
Periodic table A tabular arrangement of elements in rows and columns, highlighting the regular repetition of properties of the elements.
Period (of the periodic table) The elements in any one horizontal row of the periodic table.
Oxoacid An acid containing hydrogen, oxygen, and another element (often called the central element).
Organic Compound Compounds that contain carbon combined with other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Nuclide A particular atom characterized by a definite atomic number an mass number.
Nucleus The atom's central core.
Nonmetal An element that does not exhibit the characteristics of a metal.
Neutron A particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It has a mass almost identical to that of the proton but no electric charge.
Monomer The small molecules that are linked together to form a polymer.
Monatomic Ion An ion from a single atom.
Molecule A definite group of atoms that are chemically bonded together- that is, tightly connected by attractive forces.
Molecular Formula A chemical formula that gives the exact number of different atoms of an element in a molecule.
Metalloid (semimetal) An element having both metallic and nonmetallic properties.
Metal A substance or mixture that has a characteristic luster or shine, is generally a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is malleable and ductile.
Mass Number (A) The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Created by: 723851979