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Definitions ch. 1

chemistry and measurement

Rounding The procedure of dropping nonsignificant digits in a calculation result and adjusting the last digit reported.
Scientific Notation The representation of a number in the form A x 10^n, where A is a number with a single nonzero digit to the left of the decimal point and n is an integer, or whole number.
Accuracy The closeness of a single measurement to its true value.
Chemical Property A characteristic of a material involving its chemical change.
Compound A substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined.
Element A substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances.
Experiment An observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained.
Gas The form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid.
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture that consists of physically distinct parts, each with different properties.
Hypothesis A tentative explanation of some regularity of nature.
Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass remains constant during a chemical change (chemical reaction).
Liquid The form of matter that is a relatively incompressible fluid.
Mass The quantity of matter in a material.
Matter Whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses.
Mixture A material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances.
Physical Change A change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity.
Physical Property A characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity.
Solid The form of matter characterized by rigidity.
Theory A tested explanation of basic natural phenomena.
Unit A fixed standard of measurement.
Significant Figures Those digits in a measured number (or in the result of a calculation with measured numbers) that include all certain digits plus a final digit having some uncertainty.
Number of Significant Figures The number of digits reported for the value of a measured or calculated quantity, indicating the precision of the value.
Exact Number A number that arises when you count items or sometimes when you define a unit.
Substance A kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process.
States of Matter The three forms that matter can commonly assume - solid, liquid, and gas.
Precision The closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity.
Phase One of several different homogeneous materials present in the portion of matter under study.
Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition) A pure compound, whatever its source, always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass.
Law A concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature.
Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) A mixture that is uniform in its properties throughout given samples.
Chemical Change (Chemical Reaction) A change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter.
Created by: 723851979



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