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Nomenclature and atomic theory words and definitions

Ions Elements that are charged based on the number of protons and electrons it has. Element tend to gain or lose electrons to gain an octet, and thus become charged.
Cation An atom with a positive charge that has more protons than electrons. They are named the same as their elements.
Anions An atom with a negative charge that has more electrons than protons. They are named with their roots and "ide" as a suffix.
Binary Compounds Binary compounds consist of only two elements, and have a balanced net charge of zero. To name them, write out the entire name of the first element and the second element will be an anion with the "ide" ending. Positive cation first, negative anion last.
Ternary Compounds When compounds have more than two constituent elements, on of which is a polyatomic ion. Name the first element, and then copy the name of the polyatomic ion.
Why are ternary compounds with ammonium named differently? When ammonium is used in the chemical formula, the polyatomic ion for ammonium is used first, followed by the last element with "ide" or another polyatomic ion.
Transition Metals Found in the middle of the Periodic Table, transition metals behave differently than normal metals because they can form multiple cations without preference.
How can you determine the charge of a transition metal? You ca determine the charge of the anion in the formula, and find the positive charge that balances it for the charge of the transition metal.
Stock System Since the charges of transition metals can differ, you must include the Roman numeral in parenthesis after the name of the element (without spaces) to show the charge of the cation.
Criss-Cross Rule To write the formula from a name of the compound, find the write the two ions separately, showing their signs. Then switch the charge numbers as subscripts and drop the sign.
Acids Compounds that start with hydrogen and have to be in the aqueous form. They dissociate to form hydrogen ions in solution, and have strong or weak electrolytes.
Bases Bases dissociate in aqueous solutions to form hydroxide ions, and have strong or weak electrolytes.
What are the rules for naming acid with "___ate", "____ite" and "____ide" endings? For "____ate": _____ic acid For "____ite": _____ous acid For "____ide": hydro____chloric acid
What are the rules for naming acids with "per___ate" and "hypo___ite"? For "per___ate": per___ic acid For "hypo___ite": hypo____ous acid
What can you use for naming when a covalent compound is involved? Prefixes such as "mono", "di", "tri", "tetra", "penta", "hexa", "hepta", "oct", and "non" can be used in front of the ion when there is a covalent bond
Covalent Compounds Compounds which do not include metals.
How do you name a base? Bases don't have a formal name like acids. They are named according to the rules for binary or ternary compounds.
What comes first when naming compounds, the cation or anion? Are there any exceptions? If so, which ones? The cation precedes the anion when naming. The only exception is with compounds that include ammonia. In that case, the anion would be listed first (ammonia).
How do you name a compound that is bonded with water? ______ __hydrate The "__" in front of hydrate is for a prefix that will tell you how many moles of water there are
Created by: Rehnuma32219



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