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Chapter 1

Matter & Change

Living things are the main focus of what type of science Biological Science
Nonliving things are the main focus of what type of science Physical Science
The study of the composition, structure, and properities of matter, the processes thata matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes. Chemistry
What happens when electrons hit a material They scatter and produce a pattern that shows the materials microstructure.
Invisible rays are called X ray also used to determine microstructures
An instrument used to measure the mass of materials. Balance
The visible things all around you macrostructures
The study of most carbon-containing compounds organic chemistry
The study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometallics Inorganic chemistry
The study of the properties and changes of matterand their relation to energy Physical chemistry
The identification of the components and composition of materials Analystical chemisry
The study of substances and processes occurring in living things Biochemistry
The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds Theoretical chemistry
Any substance that has a definitie composition Chemical
Name the six branches of study in chemistry Organic, inorganic, physical, analystical, biochemistry, theoretical
Research carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge, such as how and why a specific reaction occurs and what the properites of a substance are. Basic Research
Research that is carried out to solve a problem. Applied Research
The production and use of products that improve our quality of life. Technological Development
The amount of three-dimensional space an object occupies Volume
Anything that has mass and takes up space matter
All matter has what volume and mass
The measure of the amount of matter Mass
The fundamental building blocks of matter atoms and molecules
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element Atom
A pure substance tha cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom Element
An element that contains one kind of atom Carbon
A substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances Compound
Made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. Compound
An example of a compound Water
The smallest unit of an element or compound that retains all of the properties of that element or compound molecule
Can help to reveal the identity of an unknown substance Properties
Depend on the amount of matter that is present; such as volume, mass, & the amount of energy in a substance Extensive Properties
Do not depend on the amount of matter present, such as teh melting point, boiling point, density, & ability to conduct electricity and to transfer energy as heat Intensive properties
True or False: Intensive properties are the same for a given substance regardless of how much of teh substance is present. True
Properties can also be grouped into two general types Physical properties and chemical properties
A Characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance Physical property
Example of physical property melting point & boiling point
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance Physical change
A physical change of a substnace from one state to another Change of state
What is the three most common states of matter solid, liquid, gas
What state of matter has a definite volume and defintie shape Solid
What state of matter has a definite volume but an indefinite shape Liquid (assumes the shape of its container)
What state of matter has neither definite volumne nor definite shape Gas
A high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms. Plasma
An example of where plasma is found Flourescent bulb
True or False: Physical properties can be observed without changing the identity of teh substance True
True or False: Chemical properites can be observed without changing the identity of the substance False
Relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Chemical property
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called chemical change or chemical reaction
The substances that are formed by the chemical change are called products
Molecules are close together in what state of water solid and liquid
Molecules are far apart in what state of water gas
True or False: Molecules in the solid state are fixed True
True or False: Molecules in the liquid and gas states can flow around each other True
Chemical changes do or do not affect teh total amount of matter present before and after a reaction It does not
True or False: Energy is always involved when physical or chemical chanes True
What law indicates that although energy can be absorbed or released in a change, it is not destroyed or created. It assumes a different form. The law of conservation of energy.
The substance whose composition is the same throughout and does not vary from sample to sample. pure substance
This contains more than one substance and can vary in composition and properities from sample to sample & sometimes from one part of a sample to another part. Mixure
A blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own idenity and properities. mixture
A mixture that is uniformed in composition homogeneous (they have the same properities of components throughout.
What are homogeneous mixtures called solutions
Mixtures that are not unformed throughout are called heterogeneous
How are some mixtures separated By filtration or vaporized
What is used to separate some mixtures of dyes or pigments paper chromatogeraphy
How does a pure substance differs from a mixture 1. Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properities. 2. Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly teh same composition
What type of substance is either compounds or elements Pure Substance
What can be decomposed or broken down into two or more simplier compounds or elements by a chemical change Compound
Name chemical grades of purity ACS (American Chemical Society, USP (United States Parmacopocia), CP (Chemically pure), NF ()National Formulary), FCC (Food Chemical Code), Technical
What is the organization of of elements into groups based on similar chemical properities? Periodic Table
The vertical columns of the periodic table is called Groups or families
The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table is called Periods
Name the two sections of teh Periodic table metals and nonmetals
Where are the metals located on the periodic table left & in the center
Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table right
List properities of metal shininess or metallic luster
An element that has a good electrical conductor and a good heat conductor Metal
Many nonmetals are what gases
An element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. nonmetal
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals. metalloid
The elements that are in Group 18 of the periodic table that are generally unreactive noble gases
Created by: tbstinso



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