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Chem-1 review

A review of 1st year chemistry in preparation for AP chem

QuestionAnswer
Acid A substance that dissolves in water to produce H+. An acid has a pH lower than 7
Base A substance that dissolves in water to produce OH-. A base has a pH above 7.
Alkali metal A metal in group 1 of the periodic table.
Alkaline earth metal A metal in group 2 of the periodic table.
Alpha particle/ alpha decay Radioactive decay in which a helium nucleus (2 protons and 2 neutrons) is shot out of the nucleus of an atom. Least penetrating form of radiation.
Anion A negative ion.
Cation A positive ion.
Atom Smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
Atomic mass Average mass of an atom including protons and neutrons. Different isotopes have different atomic masses due to a difference in the number of neutrons.
Atomic orbital A region where an electron is located. Each orbital can hold 2 electrons. Orbitals are labeled s, p, d, f, etc.
Atomic radius On-half the distance between two nuclei of an element.
Atomic emission spectrum Diagram showing the wavelengths at which light is emitted by excited electrons in an atom.
Dalton's atomic theory Atoms of a given element are the same, all matter is made of particles called atoms, atoms cannot be created or destroyed, atoms are indivisible.
Avogadro's number 6.02 x 10^23
Balanced chemical equation An equation for a reaction that has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides.
Bent molecule The shape of a water molecule or any molecule with 2 lone pairs and 2 shared pairs.
Beta radiation Electron emission from unstable nuclei. 2nd most penetrating form of radiation.
Bohr model of the atom Electrons are found in energy levels around the nucleus. When electrons drop from one energy level to another, a photon is emitted.
Boiling point elevation Increase in the boiling point of a solution when a solute is added.
Covalent bond A bond where electrons are shared and the electronegativity difference is less than 1.7. Typically occurs between non-metals.
Ionic bond A bond where electrons are transferred and the electronegativity difference is more than 1.7. Typically occurs between a metal and a non-metal.
Hydrogen bond (force) An intermoelcular force where the bond between H and F,O, or N attracts another molecule. It is a force between 2 molecules, not between 2 atoms.
Double bond A covalent bond where 4 electrons are shared.
Non-polar covalent bond A bond between 2 atoms where there is no electronegativity difference.
Polar covalent bond A bond between 2 atoms where the electronegativity difference is greater than 0 but less than 1.7.
Metallic bond A bond type where electrons are delocalized. The "sea of electrons".
Calorimeter Device used to measure the transfer of heat.
Catalyst A species added to a reaction that speeds up the reaction without being consumed in the reaction.
Concentration The ratio of solvent to solute. Can be measured in molarity, molality, etc.
Dipole-Dipole force The intermolecular force of attraction between 2 polar molecules.
Dispersion force The intermolecular force of attraction between 2 nonpolar molecules. Very weak. Also called Van der Waals forces.
Electron The negatively charged particle with 0 mass found outside the nucleus of the atom.
Electron configuration An expression giving the number of electrons in each orbital. Ex: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2.
VSEPR theory Theory stating that valence shell electrons repel each other and determine the shape of a molecule (bent, trigonal pyramidal, etc.).
Electronegativity The amount of pull a nucleus has on an electron.
Element A substance whose atoms are all chemically the same (containing the same number of protons).
Endothermic A process where heat is absorbed. Typically feels cool to the touch.
Exothermic A process where heat is released. Typically feels warm to the touch.
Equilibrium A state of balance where the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction (the amounts of reactants and products are NOT necessarily equal!).
Excited state A state where an electron contains more energy than the ground state. (The electron has "jumped" a level)
Experimental yield The amount of product actually produced in a reaction.
Theoretical yield The amount of product a reaction is predicted to make based on stoichiometry calculations.
Percent yield The ration of experimental yield to theoritical yield.
Empirical formula The chemical formula of a substance with the ratio reduced to lowest terms. For example-the empirical formula of C2H8 is CH4.
Freezing point depression Phenomenon where the freezing point of a solution is lowered when a solute is added.
Frequency The number of wave cycles in a given amount of time (usually seconds). Measured in hertz.
Gamma radiation High-energy radiation occurring when photons are emitted from the nucleus.
Halogen An element in group 7 of the periodic table.
Specific heat capacity The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1 degree celsius.
Rutherford model Rutherford did the gold foil experiment and found that atoms have a dense center containing the atom's mass and the majority of the atom is empty space.
Thompson's model (Plum Pudding) Thompson did the cathode ray experiment and found that the cathode ray was attracted to the positive end of a magnet. This showed that atoms were made of subatomic particles with charge.
Diatomic Br,I,N,Cl,H,O,F. Elements that are found in pairs in their natural state.
Ion A charged species where the number of protons is not the same as the number of electrons.
Ionization energy The energy that is required to remove an electron from an atom.
Isotope An atom having the same number of protons as another atom but with different numbers of neutrons.
Joule Unit of heat.
Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Law of conservation of mass Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
Lewis dost structure A diagram showing the arrangement of the valence electrons of an atom.
Limiting reactant The reactant that "runs out first". It determines how much product can be made.
Metal A substance with luster, malleability, and high electrical conductivity.
Metalloid A substance such as Si that has properties of both metals and non-metals.
Non-metal A substance without luster, brittle, and low electrical conductivity.
Molar mass The weight (in grams) of one mole of a substance.
Molarity A concentration unit defined to be the number of moles of solute per one liter of solution.
Mole A collection of 6.02 x 10^23 particles.
Neutral solution A solution with a pH of 7
Neutron A particle in an atomic nucleus with a mass of 1 amu and no charge.
Noble gas An element in group 18 of the periodic table.
Octet rule Rule stating atoms tend to acquire 8 electrons.
Orbital Region in space with a high probability of finding an electron.
Period A horizontal row of the periodic table.
Photon A particle of light or energy.
Precipitate The solid formed in a double replacement reaction.
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus with a charge of +1 and a mass of 1 amu.
Significant figure A meaningful digit in a measurement.
Solute The "thing that gets dissolved".
Solvent A substance, usually a liquid, that makes up the major component of a solution.
Sublimation A change in state from a solid to a gas.
Transition metal A metal in the d-block of the periodic table.
Valence electron An electron in an outer energy shell.
Wavelength The distance between peak to peak or trough to trough of a wave.
Created by: gmc25