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Atomic Theory-Struct

Describing the atom

QuestionAnswer
How are elements abbreviated in chemical shorthand? The first letter is always a capital. If there is a second letter it is always lower case.
What is an Atom? The basic building block of all matter.
What is an element? A substance that contains only one type of Atom. A pure substance.
What are the three particles in an Atom? Protons, Neutrons & Electrons.
What is the electrical charge of a Proton? Positive (+)
Who Is credited with the discovery of the proton and electron? J. J. Thomson
What is the electrical charge of a neutron? Neutral (o)
What is the electrical charge of an electron? Negative (-)
Who is given credit for the discovery of the neutron? James Chadwick
What is the nucleus of an atom? The center or core. The part of the atom with the most mass.
What particles are in the nucleus of an atom? What are they called collectively? Protons & Neutrons. Nucleons
What is the meaning of the Atomic Number? Atomic Number = # of Protons.
The atomic number determines the ___ of an element. identity
What is the meaning of the Atomic Mass number? The Atomic Mass number = # of Protons + # of Neutrons.
Where are the electrons of an atom located? Outside of the nucleus in an electron cloud.
How much mass do the atomic particles have? Protons & Neutrons contain most of the mass of the atom. The electrons are so small we cannot measure their mass. Electron mass is counted as zero.
What is an Isotope? An atom that has the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons.
What is an Ion? An atom with an electric charge.
How does an atom gain an electrical charge? It gains or loses one or more valence electrons.
How does a normal atom maintain a total neutral charge? Equal numbers of Protons (+) and Electrons (-).
From the Periodic Table, how do you find the # of Neutrons in an atom? # of Neutrons = Atomic Mass - Atomic Number. or A - Z
Do we know the exact location of electrons in the electron cloud? electrons in the electron cloud? No. The exact location of electrons cannot be known for certain. We can only predict the approximate & probably location of the electrons in various shells
What is a Shell Energy Level? The approximate location of electrons in the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nucleus.
Who "coined" the term atom? Democritus
Who proved the Law of Conservation of Mass? Antoine Lavoisier
State the Law of Conservation of Mass. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter or mass can not be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
Define frequency the number of waves that pass through a given point per unit of time
Define wavelength the physical distance between two successive peaks or two successive troughs. One wavelength consists of one complete crest and one complete trough
Define amplitude. The maximum displacement from a base line.
Describe the ground state energy. The energy closest to the nucleus with the lowest amount of energy.
How is electron transition like climbing the rungs on a ladder? Electrons cannot exist between energy levels just your feet cannot exist between the rungs of a ladder. Electrons may move up or down or skip energy levels, but cannot exist in between energy levels.
Created by: championj1