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SMDEP Biochem 7


Anabolism Simpler molecules combine to form more complex molecules. "Building up" Generally requires energy.
Catabolism Complex molecules break down to form simpler molecules. "Breaking down" Releases energy and increases entropy.
Glycolysis Metabolic pathway that converts glucose to pyruvate (pyruvic acid). Occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
Glycolysis con't Start with: 1 Glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NAD. End with: 2 Pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADH. Stimulators: Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and AMP. Inhibitors: Citrate and ATP
Hexokinase First step. Traps glucose in the cell by phosphorylating it.
Phosphofructokinase (PFK) Third step. Most important regulatory enzyme in the glycolysis pathway and it is irreversible. Molecules become committed to glycolysis.
Pyruvate kinase Last step. Converts phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate; this reaction is irreversible.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase con't To convert pyruvate from glycolysis to acetyl CoA to enter the Krebs cycle. Start with: Pyruvate. End with: Acetyl CoA.
Krebs Cycle Con't Occurs in the mitochondria. Start with: Acetyl CoA (2 per glucose) End with: Oxaloacetate, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, 1 GTP . NADH and FADH2 are electron carriers-donate electrons to the electron transport chain.
Oxidative Phosphorylation con't Occurs in the mitochondria. Electron transport chain: Couples electron transfer with movement of protons across a membrane (inner mitochondrial membrane) Final electron acceptor is Oxygen. Use electrochemical proton gradient to generate ATP.
Oxidative Phosphorylation con't Start with NADH and FADH2. End with ATP, water.
Uncoupling Proteins In the inner mitochondrial membrane. Generate a "proton leak"-Potential energy escapes as heat. Thermoregulation in hibernating animals.
Vitamins Niacin (B3) Riboflavin (B2) Need to make electron carriers
Niacin Used to make NAD+ and NADP+ Niacin deficiency called "Pellagra" Four D's: Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death Nutrition complicated by diet Can consume niacin directly. Can make niacin from tryptophan and vitamin B6
Riboflavin Used to make FADH->FADH2 Adequate amounts easily acquired through diet-deficiency not seen
Created by: c13luong