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Chemistry Regents

The Atomic Number is what kind of charge? nuclear charge
the mass number equals protons + neutrons
What is the outermost energy level? valence shell
Where is the most likely location of the electrons? Orbitals
When energy is added to an element and electrons move from the ground state to the excited state, and light is released it's the... spectral lines
negative ions... gain electrons
positive ions... lose electrons
What are the diatomic elements? H,O,F,Br,I,N,Cl
what is electronegativity? the ability of an atom to attract electrons
what is ionization energy? the amount of energy needed to remove an electron
What type of element has a large radius? Metals
What type of element has a small radius? Nonmetals
When a bond is formed what happens to the energy? energy is released
When a bond is broken what happens to the energy? energy is absorbed
What is the octet rule? all elements want 8 electrons to be stable
What bond has an electronegativity difference above 1.7? Ionic bond
In an ionic bond how would u draw the lewis dot structure? Metal= no dots with (+) charge (ox. state) & Nonmetal= 8 dots with (-) charge (ox. state)
What bond is characterized by sharing electrons? Covalent bonds
What is a nonpolar bond? each atom shares electrons equally (same elements) and the electronegativity difference is 0
What is a polar bond? when 2 different nonmetal atoms bond, one atom will attract electrons with a greater force and the electronegativity differnce is between 0 and 1.7
What is a coordinate bond? a polyatomic ion compound- both ionic and covalent bonds
What are molecular compounds? They contain covalent bonds
What are IMFS? molecules have a weak (compared to atomic bonds) forces of attraction for one another.
What are molecule- ions? the positive ion and negative are attracted to the molecule
What are dipole-dipole? 2 polar molecules are attracted by electrostatic forces
What is Hydrogen bonding? when H is bonded to N, O, and F only (*strongest imf*)
In Van der Waals forces the IMF is weak
Effectiveness in Van der Waal's forces IMF increases with... an increase number of electrons and decrease in distance between molecules
What are network solids? SiO2, C (diamond)
What are metallic bonds called? the mobile sea of electrons
A compound that is soft, has a low melting point, a poor conductor of heat and electricity is a... Molecular compound (like dissolves like)
Network solids properties are... extremely hard, extremely high melting points, poor conductors of heat and electricity, and insoluble in all solvents
A compound that is hard, but brittle, has a high melting point, soluble in polar solvents (H2O), and don't conduct electricity as solids but do as liquids is... An ionic compound
The properties of metallic solids are... hard but maleable, have a high melting point, a good conductor of heat and electricity in all states and insoluble
What is a hydrate? a compound that has water attached within it's crystal structure
How do you determine the composition of a hydrate? dehydrate the hydrate
How do you find the molar mass of the entire hydrate compound? ionic crystal + water
In matter you can physically separate... substances and mixtures
In matter elements and compounds (2 different elements) can be... Chemically separate
In matter what kind of mixtures cannot be separated? homogeneous and heterogeneous
What is the kinetic molecular theory? (5) 1. distance between particles is very large and compared to the volume of the particles. 2. Particles are in a rapid straight-line motion. 3. all collisions are elastic. 4. the K.E. gas is proportional to Kelvin temperature. 5. gas particles exert no IMFS
Real gases deviate from 2 parts in Kinetic molecular theory, they are... the particles have volume & particles exert attraction
Kinetic Molecular theory when it comes to real gases, they behave like ideal gas only when... PLIGHT, pressure low ideal gas high temperature
What is the Combined Gas Law? mathematical relationship used when no variables are held constant
2 gases with the same temperature, pressure, volume, and same number of moles are what law? Avogadro's Law
What is Vapor pressure? As temperature increases, vapor pressure increases, and vice versa
What is boiling point? as vapor pressure increases, boiling increases, and vice versa
In a chemical change... bonds must be broken
In physical changes- melting- solid to liquid is... endothermic
In physical changes- freezing- liquid to solid is... exothermic
Condensation is... gas to liquid (exothermic)
Vaporization is... liquid to gas (endothermic)
Heat of Fusion is... energy required to convert a solid into a liquid
Heat of Vaporization is... energy required to convert a liquid to a gas
Sublimation is... solid to gas (endothermic)
Deposition is... gas to solid (exothermic)
What is Combustion? a hydrocarbon burns in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water
What is single replacement? an element replaces another element in a compound
What is double replacement? 2 aqueous ionic compounds switch ions
What is collision theory? Molecules must collide in order to react (no effective collisions- no reactions)
What factors affect reaction rates? Nature of reactants
Nature of reactants is.. reactions involving aqueous ionic compounds react fastest
What reaction is always spontaneous? Exothermic (lower energy) and increase disorder
What is equilibrium? when the reaction rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal; the concentration of reactants and products are constant
LeChatliers Principle- Change in concentration 1. Increase in conc., the reaction shifts away 2. Decrease in conc., the reaction shifts toward
LeChatliers Principle- Change in pressure 1. Increase in pressure, favors the reaction that produces the least moles of gas 2. Decrease in pressure favors the reaction that produces the most moles of gas
LeChatliers Principle- Change in temperature 1. Inc. in temp., shifts away from heat 2. Dec. in temp., shifts toward heat
What is distillation? Separating liquid mixtures using differences in boiling points
What is concentration? the amount of solute in a given amount of solution
What is solubility? How ell a solute dissolves in a given solvent under certain conditions
What factors influence solubility? Nature of solute and solvent(like dissolves like), pressure- only affects gases; direct relationship, and temperature, solids=direct relationship, gases=indirect relationship
Saturated is... the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature (equilibrium) located on the solubility curve
Unsaturated is... less than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature; located below the solubility curve
Supersaturated is... more than the maximum amount of solute in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature; located above the solubility curve
Vapor pressure reduces... higher concentration, lower vapor pressure
Boiling Point elevates... higher concentration, higher boiling point
Freezing Points depresses... higher concentration, lower melting point
Acids H+ is a proton... donor
Bases H- is a proton... acceptor
In electrical conductivity... both will conduct
What is neutralization? acid + base -> salt + water
In a redox reaction it must have... an element
Electrochemical cells is... a device that either uses or produces electricity using a redox reaction
Electrochemical cell formula an ox -> electrons flow -> red cat
what is a Voltaic cell? a device that produces electricity through a spontaneous redox reaction
What is a electrolytic cell? a device that uses electricity to cause a nonspontaneous redox reaction
Name the 5 properties of organic compounds? covalent compounds, low melting point, insoluble in water, soluble in nonpolar solvents, and slow reaction rates
saturated hydrocarbons are... alkanes
unsaturated hydrocarbons are... alkenes, alkynes
Isomers are... same formula (same elements), different structure
Esterification is... production of an ester from an organic acid and an alcohol
Fermentation is... conversion of sugar by yeast or bacteria into ethanol
Natural Transmutation is... when an element decays into decay mode and new element
Nuclear Equations are... used to visually represent the changes taking place during a nuclear reaction by using symbols to represent elements and particles
Fission is... splitting a large nucleus into smaller nuclei using a neutron
Fusion is... making a larger nucleus from smaller nuclei
Created by: elleinad