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nutrition ch 6


proteins large, complex molecules made up of amino acids and found as essential components of all living cells.
amino acids nitrogen-containing molecules that combine to form proteins.
essential amino acids amino acids not produced by the body or not produced in suffiecient amounts so that they must be obtained from food
nonessential amino acids amino acids that can be manufactured by the body in sufficient quantities and therefore do not need to be consumed regularly in our diet
transamination the process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another in order to manufacture a new amino acid.
conditionally essential amino acids amino acids that are normally considered nonessential but become essential under certain circumstances when the body's need for them exceeds the ability to produce them
peptide bonds unique types of chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid grop of another in order to manufacture dipeptides and all larger peptide molecules.
gene expression the process of using a gene to make a protein
nucleotide a molecule composed of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar called deoxyribose, and one of four nitrogenous bases; adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T)
transcription the process through which messenger RNA copies genetic information from DNA in the nucleus
translation the process that occurs when the gentic information carried by messenger RNA is translated into a chain of amino acids at the ribosome.
denaturation the process by which protein uncoil and lose their shape and function when they are exposed to heat, acids, bases, heavy metals, alcohol, and other damaging substances.
limiting amino acid the essential amino acid that is mission or in the smallest supply in the amino acid pool and is thus responsible for slowing or halting protein synthesis
incomplete proteins foods that do not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts to support growth and health
complete proteins foods that contain all nine essential amino acids
mutual supplementation the process of combing 2 or more incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein
complementary proteins proteins contained in 2 or more foods that together contain all nine essential amino acids necessary for a complete protein. It is not necessary to eat them at the same meal
pepsin an enzyme in the stomach that begins the breakdown of proteins into shorter polypeptide chains and single amino acids.
proteases enzymes that continue the breakdown of polypeptides in the small intestine
chemical score a method used to estimate a food's protein quality; it is a comparison of the amount of the limition amino acid in a food with the amount of that same amino acid in a reference food
proteins digestibility corrected amino acid score a measurement of protein quality that considers the balance of amino acids as well as the digestibility of the protein in the food
protein efficiency ratio an assessment of protein quality that involves comparing the weight gained by a laboratory animal consuming a standard amount of a test protein with the total amount of protein that is consumed
biological value an assessment of how efficiently dietary proteins is converted into body tissues; determined by comparing the amount of nitrogen retained in the body with the amount of nitrogen that is consumed in the diet
edema a disorder in which fluids build up in the tissue spaces of the body, causing fluid imbalances and a swollen appearance
transport proteins protein molecules that help to transport substances throughout the body and across cell membranes
pH stands for percentage of hydrogen. It is measure of the acidity or level of hydrogen of any solution, including human blood.
acidosis a disorder in which the blood becomes acidic; that is, the level of hydrogen in the blood is excessive. It can be caused by respiratory or metabolic problems
alkalosis a disorder in which the blood becomes basic; that is, the level of hydrogen in the blood is deficient. It can be caused by respiratory or metabolic problems
buffers proteins that help maintain proper acid-base balance by attaching to or relesing, hydrogen ions as conditions change in the body
antibodies denfensive proteins of the immune system. Their production is prompted by the presence of bacteria, viruses, toxins, and allergens
deamination the process by which an amine group in removed from an amino acid. The nitrogen is then transported to the kidneys for excretion in the urine, and the carbon and other components are metabolized for energy or used to make other compounds.
vegetarianism the practice of restricting the diet to food substances of plant origin, including vegetables, fruits, grains, and nuts.
lacto-ovo-vegetarian consume vegetables, grains nuts, fruits, legumes, dairy products and eggs
ovovegetarian consume vegetables, grains, nuts, fruits, legumes, and eggs
macrobiotic diet vegan-type of diet; becomes progressively more strict util almost all foods are eliminated. At the extreme, only brown rice and small amounts of water or herbal tea are consumed.
mad cow disease a fatal brain disorder caused by an abnormal form of protein that causes brain damage. Also referred to as bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
carcinogens cancer-causing agents, such as certain pesticides, industrial chemicals and pollutants.
protein-energy malnutrition a disorder caused by inadequate consumption of protein. It is characterized by severe wasting.
kwashiorkor a form of protein-energy malnutrion that is typically seen in developing conuntries in infants and toddlesr who are weaned early because of the birth of a subsequent child. Denied breast milk, they are fed a cereal diet that provides adequate energy but i
sickle cell anemia a genetic disorder that causes, red blood cells to be sickle-, or crescent-, shaped. The cells cannot travel smoothly through blood vessels, causin cell breakage and anemia
cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder that causes and alteration in chloride transport, leading to the production of thick, sticky mucus that causes life- threatening respiratory and digestive problems
Created by: latina65