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Photon Packet or particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy. It is a particle of wave energy.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle It is impossible to know both the position and momentum of an electron in a particular instant.
Quantum Numbers The positions of the electrons in relation to the nucleus.
Principle Quantum Number (N) = Shell of an electron determines its average distance from the nucleus as well as NRG. Electrons in shells with higher values are farther away from the nucleus and will have more energy and less stability.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number (L) = Subshell: describes the shape of an electron's orbital. The first shell (n=1) has two: s (l=0) and p (l=1). The third (n=3), has three: s (l=0), p (l=1), and d (l=2).
Magnetic Quantum Number (M1) = Orbital; Describes the orientation of the orbital in space--in terms of x,y, or z axis on a three-dimensional grid.
Spin (Ms) Can be either positive or negative
Pauli Exclusion Principle A Maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins. No two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers.
Hund's Rule Electrons will spread themselves among orbitals of equal energy before doubling up.
Aufbau Principle Electrons are placed in orbitals, subshells and shells in order of increasing energy.
Aufbau Diagram Orbital diagram that shows which electrons are taking up orbitals and which way they are spinning.
Atomic Radius Radius of entire atom, including the electrons. It's the approx. distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons.
L --> R (Effect on Atomic Radius) Protons are added; attracts valence electrons more strongly; decreasing atomic radius
Down a group (Effect on Atomic Radius) Shells of electrons are added, increasing atomic radius; the shielding effect of the negatively charged electron shells cancels out the added positive charge.
Biggest jump in Ionization Energy Occurs after the valence electrons because it is harder to pull away from a full level, which is closer to the nucleus.
Ionic Bonds Often occur between nonmetals and metals. Electrons are not shared--one atom gives up electrons and becomes a positively charged ion, while the other atom accepts electrons and becomes a negatively charged ion.
Covalent Bonds Atoms share electrons. The first covalent bond is a SIGMA bond; additional are PI bonds; double and triple bonds are stronger and shorter.
Coordinated Covalent Bond Covalent bond in which both electrons of the bonding pair are donated by only one of the bonded atoms.
Octet Rule Bonded atoms tend to undergo reactions that will produce a complete octet of valence electrons.
Resonance Structures Possible structures for which more than one Lewis dot structure can be written (like Ozone.) In this case, the molecule vibrates between the possible structures--they each exist simultaneously.
2 Groups off Central Atom Sp hybridization --> Linear Form
3 Groups off Central Atom Sp2 hybridization --> trigonal planar form
4 Groups off Central Atom sp3 hybridization --> tetrahedral form; trigonal pyramidal (NH3); bent (H2O)
Partial Charges When electrons spend more time around some atoms than others within a compound
Formal Charges Used to predict charge distribution within a molecule. It is based on the Lewis Dot Structure. = GROUP # of ATOM - [# of LONE PAIR ELECTRONS + (1/2)NUMBER OF BONDING ELECTRONS]; Count all lone electrons and bonds, and subtract that number from grp. #.
Formal Charges Sum The net charge of the molecule or ion. In cases of resonance, formal charges in question should be averaged.
Polar Covalent Bond Unequal sharing of electrons because of different electronegativities of bonding atoms (ex. HCl)
Electroneutrality Principle Electrons in a molecule are distributed in a way such that the charges on an atom are as close to zero as possible, and if there is a negative charge, the charge should be placed on the MOST electronegative atom
Molecular Polarity Uneven distribution of electrons in a molecule cause one side to have a partial negative charge and the other to have a partial positive charge. Diatomic molecules with two atoms of different electronegativites are always polar.
Bond order Number of pairs of shared electrons by two atoms in a molecule. A single bond has order of 1; double bond, 2; triple bond, 3. Resonance forms have fractional bond orders, determined by the number of shared pairs/number of links.
Bond length distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms; the greater bond order, the smaller the bond length.
Bond NRG Enthalpy change for breaking a bond;always endothermic; increases with a greater bond order and shorter bond length
Created by: bexm42



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